HOPS

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Posted by admin | Posted in Hops | Posted on 06-08-2018

Humulus lupulus
[HUM-uh-lus lup-OO-lus]

 (previously H. americanus)

Family: Cannabaceae

Pharmaceutical Name: Fructus Humuli

Names: lupulo (Mexican); chmiel (Polish); Flor de lupulo, Flor de cervesa

Description:   Perennial. Tall, spindly, clinging vine reaching a height of 15-30 feet.  The flowers are green-yellow catkins.  The female flowers are enclosed in strobiles.  The male flowers hang in 6- to 10-inch narrow bract pairs.  The leaves are bright green, opposite, usually 3-5 heart-shaped lobes with coarsely serrated edges resembling grape leaves, with long twirling petioles.  The fruit are conical strobile, 11 inches long.  Blooms from July to August.

Cultivation: Easily grown in a good garden soil in sun or semi-shade. Prefers a deep rich loam and a warm sheltered position. Plants can succeed in dry shade if plenty of humus is incorporated into the soil, once established they are also somewhat drought tolerant. Hops are reported to tolerate an annual precipitation of between 31 and 137cm and a pH of 4.5 to 8.2.  Plants are very hardy tolerating temperatures down to about 12°F when dormant. The young shoots in spring, however, can be damaged by any more than a mild frost.  A climbing plant, supporting itself by twining around the branches of other plants.  Hops are frequently cultivated, both commercially and on a domestic scale, in temperate zones for their seed heads which have many medicinal qualities and are also used as a flavoring and preservative in beer. There are many named varieties. They grow best between the latitudes of 35 – 51°N and 34 – 43°S, with mean summer temperatures of 48 – 50°F. Generally, for beer making, the unfertilized seed heads are preferred and so most male plants are weeded out.. Hops are fairly deep rooted, but with a network of shallow feeding roots. These horizontal feeding roots spread out at depth of 20 – 30 cm in the soil and give rise to fibrous roots in upper layers of soil. The vertical roots develop downwards to a depth of about 150 cm with a spread of 183 – 244 cm and have no fibrous roots.  The bruised leaves are refreshingly aromatic whilst the flowers cast a pleasing scent.  A food plant for many caterpillars.  Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.  Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Germination is fairly quick. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out in the summer or following spring.  Division in spring as new growth begins. Very easy, you can plant the divisions straight out into their permanent positions if required.  Basal cuttings in March. Harvest the shoots when they are about 10 – 15cm long with plenty of underground stem. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.

The female cones are gathered as they start to ripen and are not yet brown and dried at 72-82F.  This opens up the inflorescence and the hop glands which secrete the sticky yellow hop flour, drop out.  The herb has an aromatic smell and a spicy, slightly bitter taste.  Young shoots are cut in spring for culinary use.

History:  The Roman historian Pliny dubbed hops lupus, or wolf, after noticing the way it twines tightly around other plants.  The word hops comes from hoppan, to climb.  Hops were grown by the Romans but were not widely cultivated until the 9th and 10th centuries, mostly in France and Germany.  In less than 100 years, a new drink called bier made from Bavarian hops became famous.  It was developed after hops was added to bread to encourage fermentation and preservation. Since bread was sometimes used in brewing, it was discovered that hops increases beer’s alcohol content.  The English preferred to sleep on hops pillows instead. Henry VIII warned that hops was a wicked weed that “would spoil the taste of the drink and endanger the people” and forbade its use.  In the 17th century, English herbalist John Evelyn was still claiming the ingesting hops could result in disease, melancholy and a shorter life.  In Russia, the word hmel describes both the herb and a slightly drunk person.  Appearing in folk wedding songs throughout Poland, hops is always associated with strong and enduring, as well as with secret, love.

Constituents:   volatile oil, about 0.4-0.85%, composed mainly of humulene (caryophyllene) with ß-caryophyllene, myrcene, farnesene, 2-methylbut-3-ene-2-ol, 3-methylbut-2-ene-1-al, 2,3,5-trithiahexane and similar compounds; with traces of acids such as 2-methylpropanoic and 3-methylbutanoic, which increases significantly in concentration in stored extracts; flavonols maily glycosides of kaempferol and quercitin; resin, about 30-12%, composed of bitter acids such as humulone, cohumulone, adhumulone and others; and ß-bitter acids such as lupulene, colupulone, adlupulone, etc; Estrogenic substances of undetermined structure; tannins; lipids; the chalcone xanthohumol and others.

Properties:   nervine, sedative, hypnotic, bitter tonic, antiseptic

Energetics:   bitter, cool

Meridians/Organs affected:  heart, liver

Medicinal Uses:   The strobiles of hops are mildly sedative and diuretic.  They are a bitter digestive that is especially suited for treating nervous indigestion, ulcers, insomnia, irritable bowel syndrome and Crohn’s disease. They relax nerves and smooth muscles, especially in the digestive tract, within 20-40 minutes after ingestion.  A 1980 study suggested that they contain a muscle-relaxing constituent in addition to lupulin, which had been assumed to be the only active chemical.  Hops’ antibacterial agents, responsible for preserving bread and beer, also fight digestive tract infections.  Hormonal effects from estrogen-like compounds were first noted when female hops pickers experienced changes in their menstrual cycles (some even stopped menstruating) after absorbing quantities of the essential oil through their hands.  Aphrodisiacal effects were observed in men. Regular doses of the herb can help regulate the menstrual cycle.  GLA which also occurs in evening primrose oil, has been found in hops, suggesting its usefulness for PMS and menstrual problems, especially muscle cramps, headaches, and sore breaks.  Hops also helps insomniacs.  A hops poultice can relive the pain and inflammation of earache or toothache.  Experiments in Germany have shown that hops tinctures are more stable than dried hops, which quickly degrades with exposure to light and humidity.   Externally used for skin infections, eczema, herpes, and leg ulcers.  Combined with Valerian as a sedative and Roman Chamomile or Peppermint for nervous digestive problems.

Dosage:

Infusion: for insomnia, drink one cup at night

Sachet: make a sachet with 100g dried herb.  Put inside a pillow to aid sleep

Tablets: take for stress or sleeplessness

Tincture: For excessive anxiety, take 20 drops diluted in a glass of water 3 times a day. For digestive headaches, take 10 drops with water up to 5 times a day

Capsules: to stimulate the appetite, take a 500mg capsule 3 times a day before meals.  It is a delicate herb and should be used fresh or freshly tinctured.

Sleep-inducing Mini-Pouch
1 cotton or linen pouch (2 ¾ in x ¾ in)
2 ¾ oz hop cones, dried
1 oz catnip leaves, dried
¾ oz linden flowers, dried
Combine the plants and insert into the cloth pouch.  Slide the pouch inside your pillow to induce inspiring dreams

Aromatherapy Uses:

EXTRACTION:   Essential oil by steam distillation from the dried cones or catkins, known as ‘strobiles’.  An absolute is also produced by solvent extraction for perfumery use.

CHARACTERISTICS: a pale yellow to reddish-amber liquid with a rich, spicy-sweet odor.

BLENDS WELL WITH: pine, hyacinth, nutmeg, copaiba balsam, citrus and spice oils

ACTIONS: anodyne, aphrodisiac, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, bactericidal, carminative, diuretic, emollient, estrogenic properties, hypnotic, nervine, sedative, soporific

USES:

Skin Care:  dermatitis, rashes, rough skin, ulcers

Respiratory System:  asthma, spasmodic cough

Digestive System:  indigestion, nervous dyspepsia

Genito-urinary and endocrine systems:  amenorrhea, menstrual cramp, supports female estrogens, promotes feminine characteristics, reduces sexual overactivity.

Nervous system:   headaches, insomnia, nervous tension, neuralgia, stress-related conditions

Other Uses:  employed as a fragrance ingredient in perfumes, especially spicy or oriental types.  Used in flavor work in tobacco, sauces and spice products, but mainly in alcoholic drinks, especially beer.

Toxicity:  Not given to patients with a history of depression.

Other Uses:  Dried hops are added to sleep pillows.  Used in perfumes of the chypre  and fougere  types.  Hops can be used for basketry and wickerwork.  The fiber is also good for producing paper.

Ritual Uses:   Gender: Hot.  Planet: Mard.  Element: Water.  Part Used: Fruit.  Basic Power: Healing.  Hops can be mixed with most other herbes associated with dream magick and put in dream pillows.  It is believed that hops increases the restfulness and serenity of your dreaming time.  Hops may be brought into rituals which honor the gods and goddesses who brought the gifts of ale and beer to humankind.  Healing incenses and sachets.  A pillow stuffed with the dried herb helps bring on sleep.

Cosmetic Use:  Used in skin softening creams and lotions, its effectiveness is possibly due to hormonal actions. From the newly opened flowers, an otto is distilled which is an astringent skin lotion and gives a pleasing fragrance in perfume.

Hops Hair Potion
½ cup mayonnaise
½ cup hops blossom
1 qt water
Boil hops and water for ten minutes.  Strain.  Wet hair with this mixture, capturing it is a basin and rewetting it again.  Rub in the mayonnaise and wrap with a terry towel for an hour or so.  Shampoo as usual.  Conditions hair.

Culinary Uses:   Young shoots are eaten raw or cooked like asparagus.  Hops are the main flavoring in beers.  Distilled oil and extracts are also used in food flavorings and soft drinks.

Recipes:

Humulus Quiche
9 inch pastry crust
1 medium onion, chopped
1 ½ oz butter or margarine
½ pint milk
small bay leaf
1 oz flour
1 egg yolk
2 Tbsp double cream
6 oz young hop shoots chopped and lightly poached in boiling salted water
salt and pepper
sprinkling of nutmeg
Prick the bottom of the crust with a fork and leave in the refrigerator.  Melt the butter and cook the onion until soft but not brown.  While it is cooking, warm milk with bay leaf and leave to infuse for a few minutes.  Stir the flour into the butter and onion mixture and stir in the strained milk gradually to make a smooth sauce.  Return to heat and stir until the sauce comes to boiling point.  Remove from heat.  Mix together the egg yolk and cream and stir into the sauce.  Add the hop shoots and seasoning.  Pour into the prepared pastry case and decorate the top with a lattice of pasty strips or shapes if desired.  Bake at 425F for 30 minutes or until the pastry is lightly browned  Can be eaten hot or cold.  (Food from the Countryside)

Split Pea Soup
8 oz split peas
5 ¼ pint water
small knuckle of bacon
1 medium onion
1 large potato
sprig lovage
½ tsp celery seeds
bunch hop shoots
Soak the peas I the water overnight, and in a separate bowl soak the knuckle of bacon. Add the drained knuckle to the pan with the peas and water, together with the onion, peeled and finely sliced and the potato peeled and cubed, the lovage and the celery seeds.  Simmer, stirring from time to time, until the peas are mushy, remove bacon knuckle and lovage and blend or sieve the soup.  Lightly poach the chopped hop tops, shred up the meat from the knuckle. Return the soup to the pan, add the meat and hop shoots and reheat.  Taste and correct seasoning before serving.  Serve with chunks of wholemeal bread and butter.  (Food from the Countryside)

Hop Lemonade
½ oz fresh hops or ¼ oz dried hops
a small piece of bruised ginger root
1 bunch of fresh apple or other mint
1 thinly sliced lemon
2/3 cup brown sugar
Fill a large pan with 4 ½ pints of cold water and add the hops, ginger, mint and lemon.  Bring to a boil and simmer fast for 30 minutes.  The liquid will have reduced by about half.  Strain and stir in the sugar.  Stir to dissolve and boil for 5 minutes.  Pour into a jug and cool (The Complete Book of Herbs and Spices)

Hops Bud Pie
4 cups of milk
10 oz semolina flour
4 Tbsp butter
4 eggs
10 oz hops buds
4 tbsp of tomato sauce
4 tbsp extra virgin olive oil
1 bunch of basil
salt & pepper
nutmeg
Blanch the hops buds, drain and chop them. Then mix in the eggs and lightly sear the concoction in butter and nutmeg. In a separate pan, bring the milk to a boil and add salt. Add the semolina flour and stir continuously for about 15 minutes, add the hops and other ingredients and pour the whole mixture in a baking dish. Cook at 350F heat for about 30 minutes. Serve cold with a light salsa made from the tomato sauce, oil, basil, salt and pepper.

References:
The Complete Book of Herbs & Spices, Sarah Garland, Viking, 1979; ISBN: 0-671-05575-5
A Compendium of Herbal Magicke, Paul Beyerl, Phoenix Publishing, 1998; ISBN: 0-919345-45-X
Encyclopedia of Herbs and Their Uses,  Deni Bown, Dorling Kindersley, 1995; ISBN: 0-7894-0184-3
Food from the Countryside, Avril Rodway, 1988; ISBN: 185627-276-1
Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils, Julia Lawless, Element Books, 1997; ISBN: 1-56619-990-5
The Illustrated Herb Encyclopedia, Kathi Keville, Mallard Press, 1991; ISBN: 0-7924-5307-7
Magical Herbalism, Scott Cunningham, Llewllyn Publications, 1982, ISBN: 0-87542-120-2
Potter’s New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, R.C.Wren, C.W.Daniel, 1985, ISBN: 0-85207-197-3 

HERBALPEDIA™ is brought to you by Herblpedia LLC, PO Box 245, Silver Spring, PA 17575-0245; 717-368-6360; FAX: 717-393-9261; email: herbworld17@gmail.com    URL: http://www.herbalpedia.com Editor: Maureen Rogers.  Copyright 2018.  All rights reserved.   Material herein is derived from journals, textbooks, etc.  cannot be held responsible for the validity of the information contained in any reference noted herein, for the misuse of information or any adverse effects  by use of any stated material presented.

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RUDRAKSAH

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Posted by admin | Posted in Rudraksh | Posted on 09-04-2018

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Elaeocarpus sphaericus
[el-lee-oh-KAR-pus  SFAY-rik-us]
(Syn:  Elaeocarpus ganitrus)

Family: Elaeocarpaceae

Names: Rudraksah (Sanskri), Utrasum-bead tree, Rudraki, Rudraks (Hindu), Rudraksa, Rudraksam, Ruttiratcam, Rudraksi.

Description:  Rudraksha trees are mostly found in South Eastern Asian Islands of Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Bali, Iran, Java, Timor (Indonesia) and parts of South Asian Kingdom of Nepal. The Rudrakasha trees are very tall and bear small white colored sweet smelling flowers on blooming in the rainy season. These flowers turn into black berry like fruits, which yield brownish red colored Rudrakasha seeds on maturing. These seeds have sutures running throughout their diameter determining their type. A medium sized evergreen tree with a spreading handsome crown; leaves simple, oblong-lanceolate, sub-entire, or irregularly crenate, decurrent into the petiole. glabrous, acute or acuminate; flowers white, in dense racemes in old leafaxils, stamens about 40 in groups, opposite each petal, anthers linear, one valve tipped at the apex with a small tuft of glistening hairs.

Cultivation:  Rudra Bhandar, started the promotion of holy Rudraksha tree for those who want to grow the tree in their home garden. Although it does not require any special climatic condition to grow, it depends on the nature of soil and care during first few months of sprouting the seeds of Rudraksha. After planting this holy tree around the house, it removes evil eye and sins of the housing environment. Because of its evergreen nature, it brings cool environment around the surrounding. Rudraksha tree can be grown by soiling the special beads as well as by planting small plant directly. When Rudraksha beads are soiled it takes around one year for it to sprout to a plant. Not all the beads that you are getting have the quality to sprout into plant, so to overcome this difficulty we supply the healthy selected beads for planting.

Rudraksha can be grown in tropical and subtropical climatic condition. During the few years when the plant just sprouted or when small plant is planted it requires very special care with daily watering to the plant, shelter from cold, direct sun light and from insect bites. After five to seven years, it starts giving rise to Rudraksha beads of different faces in the same tree. The most usual causes of failures for growing Rudraksha tree is with quality of seed or sowing too deeply. Another common cause is watering. Seeds need a supply of moisture and air in the soil around them. Most seeds will of course only germinate between certain temperatures. These are the care to be taken for plantation of seeds of Rudraksha.

History:  Rudraksha meaning—the eye of Rudra [Shiva] is considered to be the most potent manifestation of the Cosmic Force. Hence Rudraksha is the object of veneration and also the source to reach the higher self.  Rudraksha is often believed to symbolize the link between the earth and the heaven. These beads are the seeds of the Rudraksha fruit obtained from Rudraksha trees.
The ustram bead tree gains its Western name from its fruit, hard kernels which are dried and strung into rosaries by flowers of the god of the Hindu trinity, Siva the Destroyer.  Ustram bead necklaces are also treasured by other Indians, who wear them to regulate the blood pressure and to tranquilize the mind against nervous disorders.  When dried, the ustram bead is about the size of a marble with brainlike configurations which are commonly referred to as its “faces.”  Worth its own weight in gold, a bead’s value is determined not only by its size but by the number of faces with which Nature has endowed it, from the rare single-faced bead representing the One Reality treasured by temples, through twenty-one faces symbolic of various philosophical concepts, to the fused or double bead symbolizing infinity, which is set in gold, emerald, and rubies.  The ascetic followers of Siva have given the bead his name, the rudraksha.  Rudra is another name for Siva, and his devotees believe the rudraksha bead is the tear of rage which fell from Rudra’s eye as he beheld the effrontery of mankind.  Legend says the Destroyer wept when he witnessed the towering metropolis or “triple city” created by man’s superbly ambitious technology.  In its arrogance, this magnificent human creation had undermined the balance between the earth, the atmosphere, and the sky.  Then, according to The Mahabharata, having shed the implacable tear which turned into an ustram bead, “The Lord of the Universe…unleashed his arrows at the triple city…for the welfare of creation.”
It is evident from the ancient Holy Scriptures that the beads of Rudrakasha have immense amazing powers. They are considered to be associated with the eyes or the tears of lord Shiva. These beads are said to be a gift from the Almighty to his children.  These beads help the people world wide in relieving their sins, pains and sufferings. Recent scientific researches indicate the magnetic and electrical powers of this vegetable matter obtained from the Rudrakasha tree. The researches have proved that these beads really have the ability to affect neuro physiology of human beings.
Rudraksah Beads have been used for thousands of years as an aid to Self Empowerment and the Self Enlightenment. It has been shown that Rudraksha Beads have electromagnetic properties and that they affect the Human Body when worn. In addition to this, scientific researches have found that the different faces or Mukhis found on the different Beads have different electromagnetic qualities. Therefore these beads affect the Human Neuro physiology in different life supporting ways.  Scientifically the Rudrakasha beads are Dielectrical as they store electrical energy and also possess permanent Magnetic properties changing with the variation in the number of faces on the beads. Rudrakasha seeds are dynamically polar and also posses Electromagnetic, Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic properties. Due the Electromagnetic properties the Rudrakasha beads have anti ageing factors also. Though the fact of Rudraksha bead of vegetable matter having electromagnetic property is still unrevealed but their power of curing body ailments cannot be denied. It is indicated that the dielectric and magnetic properties of the Rudraksha seeds impart positive changes in the bioelectrical system of the human body in a life-supporting manner. As a result of this electrical makeup of our body changes.
As Bioelectrical and Biochemical actions and reactions organize in the body at higher levels of interaction another change is then initiated in our Bio Mechanical System and the Sacred Trinity of Body Systems are in Union with one another. Many scientists have described the beneficial powers of a Rudraksha by virtue of its Electrical and Magnetic properties that affect our Central Nervous System, Autonomic, Sympathetic and Para Sympathetic Nervous Systems and various other Organ Systems. Group of Scientists proved that wearing Rudraksha controlled heartbeat and had a positive effect on Blood Pressure, Stress, Anxiety, Depression, Palpitations and Lack of Concentration.  Some statements also indicate that persons wearing certain Rudraksha also posses an anti ageing property. The electromagnetic powers of a Rudraksha bead vary from single mukhi to a 15 mukhi Rudraksha. Persons can wear Rudrakasha of a single kind of mukhi or that of a combination of different types of mukhis. Prof. Roy says, “that normally within 45 days you can start feeling the positive change. In 90 days you can feel much better. Thereafter it will work continuously giving benefits”. When asked Can Rudraksha cause harm? His answer was “No it cannot”. He states that all beads are not recommended for those below 8 years of age. Additional Knowledge can be added to these statements with rules from the Devi Bhagwat stating “The mentioned rules of wearing Rudraksha of different colors by different persons are not compulsory”. And Ladies are allowed to wear Rudraksha.

Constituents: Rudraksha beads are composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and some trace elements in combined form. The percentage composition of these gaseous elements was determined by C-H-N Analyzer and by Gas chromatography. These beads consist of 50.031 % carbon, 0.95% nitrogen, 17.897% hydrogen and 30.53% oxygen.

Properties: Cardiostimulant, hypotensive, sedative, anticonvolusions, spasmolytic, choleretic and bronchodialatory (fruit); stimulates the central nervous system and hypoglycemic (stem bark).

Medicinal Uses: Considered a major stress reliever, reducing circulatory problems, clinical research of its medicinal properties has not been possible because of its cost.  The fruits are sour, thermogenic, appetiser and sedative, and are “useful in cough” bronchitis, neuralgia, cephalalgia, anorexia, epileptic fits, manic conditions and other brain disorders, and vitiated conditions of kapha and vata. The fruit stone (seed kernel) is sweet. cooling, emollient cerebral sedative, expectorant, liver tonic and febrifuge, and is useful in epileptic fits, melancholia, manic conditions, mental disorders, convulsions, insomnia, cephalalgia. hepatopathy, hypertension, bronchitis, fever and vitiated conditions of kapha and vata.
Elaeocarpus sphaericus fruits are used in Ayurveda for mental diseases, epilepsy, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and liver diseases.

Other Uses:  The mature dried seeds from the fruits of these trees are used to make rosaries and necklaces for prayer and meditation mainly used by Hindus and Buddhists.  The wood from the rudraksha tree are used for timber in building work, light construction, carpentry, joinery, wood ware, furniture, veneer, boats, light wood based artifacts, plywood and sometimes in plane propellers.

References:
The Garden of Life, Naveen Patnaik, Doubleday, 1993; ISBN: 0-385-2469-8

HERBALPEDIA™ is brought to you by The Herb Growing & Marketing Network, PO Box 245, Silver Spring, PA 17575-0245; 717-368-6360; FAX: 717-393-9261; email: herbworld17@gmail.com    URL: http://www.herbalpedia.com Editor: Maureen Rogers.  Copyright 2018.  All rights reserved.   Material herein is derived from journals, textbooks, etc. THGMN cannot be held responsible for the validity of the information contained in any reference noted herein, for the misuse of information or any adverse effects by use of any stated material presented.

 

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Kratom…….If you have a problem with opioids you may want to read how this herb can help

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Posted by admin | Posted in Kratom | Posted on 08-03-2018

This is a monograph from the Herbalpedia.  This one is unique and is being targeted by the DEA in spite of the fact that doctors are therapists verifying that Kratom is extremely helpful at getting people off opioids.

Mitragyna speciosa

Family: Rubiaceae 

Names: Ketum; Kakuam; Ithang; Thom, kutum, biak, biak-biak

Description:  Kratom is a tree native to Southeast Asia reaching heights of 50 feet with a spread of over 15 feet. The stem is erect and branching. Flowers are yellow. Leaves are evergreen, and are a dark glossy green in color, ovate-acuminate in shape, and opposite in growth pattern. Kratom is evergreen rather than deciduous, and leaves are constantly being shed and being replaced, but there is some quasi-seasonal leaf shedding due to environmental conditions. During the dry season of the year leaf fall is more abundant, and new growth is more plentiful during the rainy season. When grown outside their natural tropical habitat, leaf fall occurs with colder temperatures, around 4 degrees Celsius.

Cultivation: This large tender perennial dislikes cold weather and does not tolerate frost. Potted plants can be grown outdoors in temperate climates when the weather is sufficiently warm, and grown indoors the rest of the time. Kratom can be grown outdoors all year in tropical climates in wet humousy soil. Potted plants should be lightly fertilized every few weeks, but only when actively growing. They can be propagated from cuttings.  Kratom It is drought sensitive. Propagation is by very fresh seed or cuttings. There is a low strike rate, due to an endogenous fungus which attacks xylem tissue.

History: Users of kratom tend to be peasants, laborers, and farmers who use the plant to overcome the burdens of their hard work and meager existences. Female users are apparently quite rare. Age of usage onset seems to be higher than for other drugs. Some studies have found no addiction problems in villagers using kratom, while others apparently have. Heavy users may chew kratom between 3 and 10 times a day. While new users may only need a few leaves to obtain the desired effects, some users find with time they need to increase doses to 10-30 leaves or even more per day.
In some parts of the country, it was said that parents would choose to give their daughters in marriage to men who used kratom rather than men who used marijuana. The belief is that kratom users are hard working, while marijuana users are lazy. This belief is also maintained by many of the users themselves, who report beginning use because of a desire to work more efficiently, and who say using the drug gives them a strong desire to do work.
The Thai government passed the Kratom Act 2486 which went into effect on August 3, 1943. This law makes planting the tree illegal and requires existing trees to be cut down. This law was not found effective, since the tree is indigenous to the country. Today, kratom is classed in the same enforcement group as cocaine and heroin by Thai law, and has the same penalties. One ounce of extract is punishable by death. As with prohibition laws elsewhere in the world, this has succeeded only at increasing black market prices.

Properties: Stimulant; Depressant; Intoxicant

Constituents: Over 25 alkaloids have been isolated from kratom. The most abundant alkaloids consist of three indoles and two oxindoles. The three indoles are mitragynine, paynanthine, and speciogynine – the first two of which appear to be unique to this species. The two oxindoles are mitraphylline and speciofoline. Other alkaloids present include other indoles, and oxindoles such as ajmalicine, corynanthedine, mitraversine, rhychophylline, and stipulatine.
Mitragynine is the dominant alkaloid in the plant. It was first isolated in 1907 by D. Hooper, a process repeated in 1921 by E. Field who gave the alkaloid its name. Its structure was first fully determined in 1964 by D. Zacharias, R. Rosenstein and E. Jeffrey. It is structurally related to both the yohimbe alkaloids and voacangine. It is more distantly related to other tryptamine-based psychedelic drugs such as psilocybin or LSD. Chemically, mitragynine is 9-methoxy-corynantheidine. Physically the compound is a white, amorphous powder with a melting point of 102-106 degrees and a boiling point of 230-240 degrees. It is soluble in alcohol, chloroform and acetic acid. The hydrochloride salt has a melting point of 243 degrees.

The alkaloid content of the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa is about 0.5%, about half of which is mitragynine. An average leaf weighs about 1.7 grams fresh or 0.43 grams dried. Twenty leaves contain approximately 17mg of mitragynine. All leaves appear to contain mitragynine, speciogynine, paynanthine, and small quantities of speciociliatine. Oxindole alkaloids usually occur only in small or trace amounts.

Medicinal Uses: The leaves of kratom have been used as an herbal drug from time immemorial by peoples of Southeast Asia. It is used as a stimulant (at low doses), sedative (at high doses), recreational drug, pain killer, medicine for diarrhea, and treatment for opiate addiction.

Inspired by traditional use, H. Ridley reported in 1897 that the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa were a cure for opium addiction. In more recent times, mitragynine has been used in New Zealand for methadone addiction detox. Kratom was smoked whenever the patient experienced withdrawal symptoms, over a 6 week treatment period. Patients reported a visualization effect taking place at night in the form of vivid hypnagogic dreams. While working on plans for ibogaine experiments in the USA, Cures Not Wars activist Dana Beal suggested that mitragynine could be used as an active placebo for comparison in the study. Acting Deputy Director of the NIDA Charles Grudzinskas rejected the proposal, however, saying that even less was known about mitragynine than ibogaine.

Although chemically similar, ibogaine and mitragynine work by different pathways, and have different applications in treatment of narcotic addiction. While ibogaine is intended as a one time treatment to cure addiction, mitragynine used to gradual wean the user off narcotics. The fact that mitragynine’s mu crossover is increased by the presence of opiate drugs may be exploitable in the treatment of narcotics addiction, because it directs binding to where it is needed, automatically regulating the attachment ratio and modulating it towards the delta receptors over a short time. Within a few days, the addict would stop use of the narcotic they are addicted to, and the cravings and withdrawal will be moderated by the binding of mitragynine to the delta receptors. Mitragynine could also perhaps be used as a maintenance drug for addicts not wishing to quit but trying to moderate an out of hand addiction.

In 1999, Pennapa Sapcharoen, director of the National Institute of Thai Traditional Medicine in Bangkok said that kratom could be prescribed both to opiate addicts and to patients suffering from depression, but stressed that further research is needed. Chulalongkorn University chemists have isolated mitragynine which researchers can obtain for study.

In Thailand, kratom leaves are often chewed fresh (usually after removing the stringy central vein). Dried leaves can also be chewed, but since they are a bit tough, most people prefer to crush them up or powder them so that they can be swallowed. Powdered kratom can be mixed with fruit juice or apple sauce. This partially masks the taste and allows it to be quickly swallowed. Dried kratom leaves are often made into a tea that is strained and then drunk.. Kratom can be smoked, but doing so has no advantage over chewing or making a tea from it. The amount of leaf that constitutes a typical dose is too much to be smoked easily. A paste-like extract can be prepared by lengthy boiling of fresh or dried leaves. This can be stored for later use. Small pellets of this extract can be swallowed, or it can be dissolved in hot water and consumed as a tea. Some people like to mix kratom tea with ordinary black tea, or other herbal teas, before it is consumed. This is done to make it more palatable. Sugar or honey can be added to sweeten it.

To make the tea: Take 50 grams of dried, crushed kratom leaves and put into a pot. To this add 1 liter of water.  Boil gently for 15 minutes. Pour the tea through a strainer into a bowl and reserve the liquid. (squeeze the leaves in the strainer to get most of the liquid out).  Put the leaves back in the pot and add another liter of fresh water. Repeat steps 2 and 3. (After the leaves have been strained a second time, they can be discarded.)  Put the combined liquid from both boilings back into the pot and boil until the volume is reduced to about 100 ml.  The idea is to boil the tea down to a small volume so that each individual dose can be quickly swallowed.  It can be boil it down to whatever concentration you are comfortable with. Be careful near the end of the process. If it starts to become syrupy, it may spatter and/or burn.)  The tea is bitter tasting. To minimize the unpleasant taste, gulp it down quickly and then immediately chase it with some pleasant-tasting fruit juice. This recipe makes enough tea for 8 to 16 mild doses, 4 medium-strength doses, or two moderately strong doses:  Kratom tea can be safely stored in the refrigerator for about five days. It is probably okay to keep it a bit longer, but it’s better to play it safe and not drink it after five days. It can be stored for many months if you add some alcohol to it. Adding about 10% alcohol will preserve it for many months (in the refrigerator). That is one part 80 proof liquor (vodka, rum, or a similar spirit) to three parts kratom tea.

At this dosage you will be less sensitive to physical or emotional pain, feel and look calm, have a general feeling of comfortable pleasure, and may enter a pleasant dreamy reverie. You may experience some itching or sweating. Your pupils may be constricted (small). It is possible you may feel nauseated, but if you lie down and relax the nausea should quickly cease. You may find your appreciation of music is increased. It will be very pleasant to lie down on your back in a semi-darkened room, with eyes closed, and just listen to your favorite music. If you do this you may be fortunate enough to enter the delightful mixed-state of ‘waking-dreaming’ where you have one foot in dreamland and the other foot in the real world. This state was much prized by the 19th century Romantic writers, who, lacking knowledge of kratom, resorted to the much more habit-forming narcotic, opium, to achieve it. The effects of kratom usually last about six hours. The higher the dose, the stronger the effects, and the longer they last. Many people report a positive ‘afterglow’ the next day.

When taken as a tea, Kratom effects can be noticed in about 20 minutes. Generally, a feeling of stimulation and relaxation is noted, as well as a growing feeling of euphoria. Many become more sociable, and want to engage in conversation. In time, the stimulation fades and a strong sedation is noticed. This narcotic effect can be overpowering, and many will lay down and try to sleep. This can result in the waking dream state often times achieved by opiates. These effects can, in all, last between 2 to 5 hours. Extracts tend to take longer to take effect if they are eaten, but the effects can be noticed for a longer period of time.

Leaves can also be made into a crude resin extraction. This resin extract is made by preparing a water extract of the leaves, boiling it down, and then shaping it into small ball.
While new users may only need 5-10 grams of leaves to obtain the desired effects, some users find with time they need to increase doses, up to 50 grams leaves per day for a strong effect. It is best to take the leaves on an empty stomach.

One of the side effects of Kratom consumption is constipation and this is made use of in folk medicine to treat diarrhea. The fresh leaves are pounded and applied directly to wounds. The poultice of the leaves is applied to the upper part of the abdomen to expel worms in children.

Dosage: 2-6 grams = mild effects (typically the effects are stimulant-like)

7-15 grams = medium strength effects (the effects can be stimulant-like or sedative-euphoric-analgesic)
16-25 grams = strong effects (sedative-euphoric-analgesic effects; too strong for highly sensitive people)

26-50 grams = very strong effects (sedative-euphoric-analgesic effects

Toxicity: The plant has not been clinically studied in humans. However, there are reports of acute side effects including dry mouth, increased urination, loss of appetite, and constipation. It does not appear to cause nausea or vomiting. Heavy use can be associated with prolonged sleep. Chronic side effects include anorexia and weight loss, insomnia, and a darkening of the skin, particularly on the cheeks, giving an appearance similar to a hepatic face. Among addicts, 30% report limited sexual desire and the need to use a combination of M. speciosa and alcohol to become sexually stimulated. Addiction seems to be a possibility if high doses are used. Some withdrawal symptoms reported by addicts include hostility, aggression, wet nose, inability to work, flow of tears, muscle and bone aches, and jerky limb movement.
When kratom is taken by itself (without mixing it with other drugs), the greatest risk is falling asleep while engaged in hazardous activities. Never drive while under the influence of kratom, even if you feel stimulated, rather than sleepy, for sleepiness may come on you without warning.
Since there have been no studies of the risks of kratom use by pregnant women, it is not known whether it could cause birth defects or fetal death.
Health problems are unlikely unless one is consuming large quantities of kratom every day. In Thailand, where there are some people who use kratom every day, those dependent on it can develop weight loss, dark pigmentation of the face, and have physical withdrawal symptoms if they quit abruptly. The withdrawal symptoms may include muscle aches, irritability, crying, runny nose, diarrhea, and muscle jerking. Health problems are unlikely to occur in occasional kratom users. Like any drug or medicine, people’s reactions vary and some people could possibly have an allergic or other unusual reaction to kratom, even if they used it responsibly.
Kratom should not be combined with large amounts of alcohol, with benzodiazepines, opiates, or any other drugs that depress the nervous system. This is because of the possibility that such combinations might cause over-sedation or even possible respiratory depression (not breathing).  It is also not recommended that kratom not be combined with any MAO inhibitor drug. Serious, even fatal, reactions can occur if MAO inhibitor drugs are combined with monoamine drugs. The combination of MAO inhibitor drugs with kratom, which contains monoamine alkaloids, has not been studied.

 

HERBALPEDIA™ is brought to you by Herblpedia LLC, PO Box 245, Silver Spring, PA 17575-0245; 717-368-6360; FAX: 717-393-9261; email: herbworld17@gmail.com    URL: http://www.herbalpedia.com Editor: Maureen Rogers.  Copyright 2017.  All rights reserved.   Material herein is derived from journals, textbooks, etc. THGMN cannot be held responsible for the validity of the information contained in any reference noted herein, for the misuse of information or any adverse effects by use of any stated material presented.

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Coriander

0

Posted by admin | Posted in Uncategorized | Posted on 18-05-2017

Coriandrum sativum
[kor-ee-AN-drum  sa-TEE-vum] 

Family: Umbelliferae

Names: Chinese parsley, culantro, yuen sai; Dizzycorn; Japanese Parsley; coriander, coriander, persil arabe (French);  Koriander, Wanzendill, Schwindelkorn (German); coriandolo (Italian);  cilantro, culantro, cilandriom, coriandro (Spanish); Kizbara, kuzbara, kuzbura (Arabic); nannambin (leaves), nannamzee (seed) (Burmese);  hu-sui, hsiang-sui, yuan-sui, hs(I)ang tsai, yen-sui, yuen sai, yuin si tsoi (leaves) (Chinese); dhan(y)ia, dhuniah, kothimbir, kotimear, kotimli (seed); dhania patta, dhania sabz, hara dhania (leaf) (Indian);  ketumbar (Indonesian);  phak hom pom (Lao); Malay: daun Ketumba (leaves), ketumba (seed); kottamalli (seed), kotamalli kolle (leaves) (Sinhalese); kinchay (Tagalog); kothamilee (Tamil); pak chee (met) (Thai); Kolendra siewna (Polish); koriander (Dutch); coentro (Portuguese); koriander (Swedish); koriandr (Russian); koendoro (Japanese);  Dhanyaka (Sanskrit); Dhaniya (Hindi)

Pharmaceutical Name: seeds: Fructus Coriandri

Description:  Feathery herb rising up on a few, branched stems.  Height 2-3 feet; width 1 foot.  Flowers: small, flat umbels of white to pale mauve with a reddish accent.  Tiny groups surrounded by enlarged, outer petals.  Leaves: at first rounded with toothed edges and large lobes, mature leaves are finely divided, feathery.  Fruit: clusters of small, green globes that turn brown as they ripen. Smell of the fruits changes from pungent to spicy as they mature.  Blooms July to September.

Cultivation: Originally native to Mediterranean and Caucasion regions.  Grown commercially in India, Morocco, Poland, Romania and Argentina.  Some grown in Kentucky for the liquor industry.  US imports more than 3 million pounds annually.  An annual which germinates in 7-14 days.  Spacing is 12-18 inches; soil temperature 55-68 degrees.  Soil: average with good drainage; pH: 5-8.2.  Full sun or partial shade in hot areas.  Sow directly as it dislikes transplanting and wait until all danger of frost is past.  Mature fruits appear in about 3 months.  For greater yield, sow coriander in succession crops.  Sow the seeds about inch apart and ½ inch deep.  Light application of fish emulsion when plant is small; occasional applications of compost.  Attracts beneficial insects and deters harmful ones with its strong odor; weevils may attack dried seeds.  For commercial production 10-20 lbs of seed will sow an acre depending on spacing.  Yields vary on seed–500-2000 lbs of seed per acre have been obtained.

Harvest the leaves as needed, beginning eight weeks after plants appear.  Frequent harvests prevent the herb from going into flower. Select very fresh coriander leaves for cooking as its flavor deteriorates with age.  Leaves should be glossy green with no yellow or mold.  Once picked, store in a container with 2-3 inches of the stems in water.  Place a plastic bag over the top and secure it with a rubber band.  Don’t bother to dry as the flavor does not hold.  Freezing or preserving in a light oil is a better method.  Also the fresh leaves can be pureed with a little water and frozen in ice trays.   Harvest seed heads just as they begin to turn brown.  Then hang the plants upside down in large bunches in a dark, well-ventilated room in a large paper bag.  The seeds will fall off the stalks when gently shaken.

History: Probably one of the first cultivated spices it was in use by 1550 BC as both spice and medicine.  Egyptians added them to wine to increase intoxication and seeds were found in King Tut’s tomb from 1323BC.  It was also mentioned in ancient Sanskrit texts and in the Old Testament.  Romans boiled coriander leaves with greens and barley porridge.  Virgil mentions a seasoning of coriander seeds, rue, savory, mint, wild celery, onion, thyme, pennyroyal and garlic.  It was used by Hippocrates, as a love potion in the Middle Ages and an aphrodisiac in The Arabian Nights.  The Spanish introduced it to Latin America where both the seeds and especially the leaves are now an integral part of their cuisine.  Arrived in this country before 1670 but never gained as much fame until recently except for flavoring liquor.  The word coriander comes from the Greek korios meaning bedbug because of its scent

Constituents: Fruits: essential oil includes mainly linalool, also borneol, anethole coriandrol, terpinene, geraniol, camphor, carvone, anethole;  Leaves: vitamins A & C, minerals–calcium, phosphorus, potassium, iron; coumarin

Properties: antispasmodic, appetizer, aromatic, carminative, stomachic, analgesic, aperitif, aphrodisiac, anti-oxidant, anti-rheumatic, bactericidal, depurative, digestive, cytotoxic, fungicidal, larvicidal, lipolytic, revitalizing, stimulant (cardiac, circulatory, nervous system).

Energetics: spicy, neutral (seeds); cool (leaves)

Meridians/Organs affected: bladder, stomach

Nutritional profile:   One teaspoon coriander seed has 5 calories.  It provides .2 g protein, 0.3 g fat, 1 g carbohydrates, 13 mg calcium and .3 g iron.

Aromatherapy Uses:
EXTRACTION: essential oil by steam distillation from the crushed ripe seeds.  An essential oil is also produced by stem distillation from the fresh and dried leaves, which contains a high proportion of decylaldehyde.

CHARACTERISTICS: A colorless to pale yellow liquid with a sweet, woody-spicy, slightly musky fragrance.

BLENDS WITH: clary sage, bergamot, jasmine, olibanum, neroli, petitgrain, citronella, sandalwood, cypress, pine, ginger, cinnamon and other spice oils.

USES: Circulation, Muscles and joint: accumulation of fluids and toxins, arthritis, gout, muscular aches and pains, poor circulation, rheumatism, stiffness

Digestive System: anorexia, colic, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, nausea, piles, spasm

Immune system: colds, flu, infections, measles

Nervous System: debility, migraine, neuralgia, nervous exhaustion

Other: used as a flavoring agent in pharmaceutical preparations, especially digestive remedies.  Used as a fragrance component in soaps, toiletries and perfume.  Employed by the food industry especially in meat products and to flavor liqueurs such as Chartreuse and Benedictine and for flavoring tobacco.

Medicinal Use:  Coriander seeds are used in many medicines to improve taste especially bitter laxatives.  They aid digestion, reduce gas and improve the appetite.  Previously coriander water was used to relieve colic.  The Chinese use coriander tea to counter dysentery and measles.  East Indians make the seeds into an eyewash to prevent blindness in smallpox patients.  The oil is an antiseptic and was suggested by Dioscorides to great urinary tract restrictions and inflammations.  Add the essential oil to ointments for painful rheumatic joints and muscles.

Cilantro has been used to help remove heavy metal poisoning or chelate toxic metals by some using a cilantro pesto recipe taking 2 teaspoons a day.

Cilantro Chelation Pesto
4 cloves garlic
1/3 cup Brazil nuts (selenium)
1/3 cup sunflower seeds (cysteine)
1/3 cup pumpkin seeds (zinc, magnesium)
2 cups packed fresh cilantro) (vitamin A)
2/3 cup flaxseed oil
4 tablespoons lemon juice (vitamin C)
2 tsp dulse powder
Sea salt to taste
Process the cilantro and flaxseed oil in a blender until the coriander is chopped. Add the garlic, nuts and seeds, dulse and lemon juice and mix until the mixture is finely blended into a paste. Add a pinch to sea salt to taste and blend again. Store in dark glass jars if possible. It freezes well, so purchase cilantro in season and fill enough jars to last through the year.
Two teaspoons of this pesto daily for three weeks is purportedly enough to increase the urinary excretion of mercury, lead and aluminum, thus effectively removing these toxic metals from the body. The cleanse is done for three weeks at least once a year. A researcher named Dr. Yoshiaki Omura discovered that some patients excreted more toxic metals after consuming a Chinese soup containing cilantro.  Cilantro extract has been used as well.   According to some authorities, the cilantro mobilizes the mercury (and lead and aluminum) but the chlorella bonds with it and transports it out of the body.

Dosage:
Infusion: Pour a cup of boiling water onto 1 tsp of the bruised seeds and let infuse for 5 minutes in a closed pot.  Drunk before meals.

Egyptian Rheumatic Binding: Make a strong decoction of coriander leaves and lightly crushed seeds.  Add 2 Tbsp leaves and 1 tsp of seeds to 1 pt boiling water.  Return to heat and simmer for 20 minutes, remove and strain.  Bathe with liquid and on 3-inch bandage lay strained moist green matter lengthwise, with clean bandage on top.  Bind affected area.  Apply hot or cold.  Keep liquid in fridge for up to 3 days.

Toxicity: Coriander can be narcotic in extremely high dosages.  The juice of freshly picked plants produces an effect like that of alcohol–excitement, then depression.  Handling coriander plants may cause contact dermatitis.

Ritual Use:  Gender–hot; planet—Mars; element–Fire; basic power–love.  When coriander is grown in a garden it will protect the gardener and all who reside in the household. A bunch of it hung within the home as an herb of protection, decorated with ribbon brings peace and security to the house.  It is associated with peace, and may be used in rituals performed for that effect.  It may be used in a ritual drink or the seed burnt as incense.  It has been used in love spells but also is known as an herb of immortality.  It is used in unions of two persons who desire to share their love beyond this life.

Cosmetic Use:  It was used to make Carmelite water and a special honey water which George Wilson, an apothecary, made for King James II of England.  It is a pleasing after-shave lotion and takes any inflammation from the skin.

Recipe for toilet water: To 1 lb of lemon balm leaves, add 2 oz of lemon peel; and 1 oz each of nutmeg, cloves, coriander seed and chopped angelica root.  Place in a home still or an old kettle with 1 pint or orange blossom or elder flower water and 2 pints of alcohol. Slowly distil, if using a kettle, collecting the toilet water, which is passed through a tube beneath cold water, in a large jar.

  Recipe for Spicy Astringent Lotion: 8 Tbsp alcohol; 4 Tbsp rosewater; 4 Tbsp orange flower water; 2 Tbsp lemon peel, shredded; 1 tsp orange peel, shredded; 1 tsp grapefruit peel, shredded; 2 tsp nutmeg; 2 tsp coriander seeds; 1 tsp cloves; 1/2 tsp storax; ½  tsp benzoin.  Mix all the ingredients together and put them in a good-sized preserving jar with an airtight lid.  Secure the lid firmly.   Shake it well several times a day.  Leave to infuse and intermingle for seven to eight days.  Strain, bottle, shake well and label.

After Shave lotion:   Take 2 oz of seed which should be a year old for their orange perfume to be pronounced, and place in a pan with a tablespoon on honey and 1 pint of water.  Simmer over a low flame for 20 minutes and when cool, add a tablespoonful of witch hazel and strain into bottles.  If kept under refrigeration, the lotion will be especially refreshing when use.

Other Uses: Seeds are used in potpourri and to flavor tobacco.

Culinary Uses:   Do not interchange seeds and leaves in recipes…..flavors are totally different though can enhance each other.  The seeds are the basis of curries and salsas and a secret ingredient in apple fishes.  The fresh leaves are used in the cuisines of Mexico, South America, China, southeast Asia (especially Thai and Vietnamese), the Phillipines, North Africa and East Indies.  Algerians preserve their food in coriander mixed with pepper and salt.  The seeds flavor the Basque drink izzara, melissa cordial, Chartreuse, Benedictine, Ratafia and some brands of gin and brandy.  The root has been cooked and eaten like a vegetable. The seeds are used in baked goods and sweets and are the traditional center in “jawbreaker” candies.  Flowers have a flavor like a mix of anise, cumin, sage and orange.

SUGGESTED USES: Sprinkle some chopped fresh coriander leaves onto a hot, brothy soup; tuck a bunch of leaves inside a roast chicken or fish; sprinkle the leaves over bowls of chili or stir it into guacamole dip.  Stir it into cooked rice along with slivers of fresh coconut, thinly sliced dried apricots and grated lemon zest.  Try two teaspoons of slightly crushed seeds to your favorite apple, pear, or peach pie or strudel.  Use in tomato chutney, ratatouille, frankfurters and curries.  Add whole seeds to soups, sauces and vegetable dishes.  Cook fresh root as a vegetable or add to curries.  Cook the stem with beans and soups.  Goes with mint and cumi

RECIPES:
Thai Fish Curry
1/3 cup finely chopped onion

2 Tbsp fresh cilantro stems

2 Tbsp minced fresh lemongrass (from bottom 6-inch stalk)

1 tbsp turmeric

1 Tbsp fresh ginger

1 Tbsp ground cumin

3 large garlic cloves, halved

¾ tsp crushed dried red pepper

1 Tbsp vegetable oil

¾ lb sea bass fillets, 1 ½ inch thick, cut into 3-in pieces

1 can canned unsweetened coconut milk

2/3 cup clam juice

minced fresh cilantro

freshly cooked rice

Blend first 8 ingredients in processor to dry paste.  Heat oil in nonstick skillet over medium-high heat.  Add 2 tablespoons spice paste; stir 1 minute.  Add fish and cook 2 minutes, turning with tongs.

C hili-Cilantro Corn Muffins
1 cup all-purpose flour
1 cu yellow cornmeal
1 Tbsp baking powder
1 tsp cumin
½ tsp salt
¾ cup water
2 large eggs
¼ cup vegetable oil
2 Tbsp fresh cilantro, chopped
1 can chopped chiles
¼ cup Parmesan cheese, shredded
3 Tbsp brown sugar
Preheat oven to 350F. Mix flour, cornmeal, cumin, baking powder, and salt in a mixing bowl.  Stir together remaining ingredients.  Ad to dry ingredients and lightly mix.  Divide batter evenly into a greased 12-muffin pan or put it all into 8 inch greased baking pan. Fill muffin tins.  Bake 25 minutes, or until crust is lightly browned and a toothpick inseead and gently reheated in a 300F oven or a microwave sug

Zhug

Traditional spice mix in Yeman.  Use as a table condiment

2 small mild red peppers

2-3 fresh red chilies

a handful of coriander leaves

1½ Tbsp ground coriander

6 cloves garlic

seeds from 6 green cardamoms

1-2 tsp lemon juice

Finely chop the red peppers and chilies, removing the seeds.  Chop the coriander leaves.  Blend or pound all the ingredients to a paste, and store in a jar in the refrigerator for up to 2 weeks. (Complete Book of Spices)

 

Tilapia Cancun with Green Cashew Sauce

1 cup cashews, roasted

½ bunch fresh cilantro

2 cloves garlic

salt & pepper to taste

1 tsp shallots

1¼  lb Tilapia filets

2 serrano chiles

2 Tbsp paprika

¼ cup peanut oil

1Tbsp cayenne

3 Tbsp rice vinegar

1 lime, cut in half

1 Tbsp water

In a food processor, puree the cashews, garlic, shallots and chiles.  When the mixture has become a paste, add the oil and continue to puree.  Add the vinegar and cilantro and puree until smooth.  Season with salt and pepper.  Set cashew sauce aside.  Rinse and dry the filets with a towel.  Rub each side with a lime half and coat with paprika and cayenne.  Sauté or flat grill the filets.  On individual plates, place each cooked filet on 1 Tbsp of green cashew sauce.  (Monterey’s Cooking Secrets) (Editor’s note: this sauce is so good you’ll want to put it on baked potatoes, vegetables, pasta….anything)

 

 

 

 

 

3/4 inch thick.  Arrange the pieces on their sides on a lightly greased baking sheet, leaving about an inch between each biscuit.  Brush with egg glaze and sprinkle with sesame seeds.  Bake at 375F for 20 minutes, or until the biscuits are puffed and lightly browned.  Serve warm.  (Cooking with the Healthful Herbs)

 

Liqueur of Love
1 Tbsp coriander seed
1 tsp cardamom seed
1 star anise flower
6 whole cloves
6 rose hips
2 cups water, divided
1 cup honey
2 Tbsp dried hibiscus flowers
3 tsp orange zest
1 cup 100-proof vodka
½ cup brandy
Coarsely grind coriander, cardamom, star anise, cloves, and rose hips in coffee grinder or food processor.  Bring 1 cup water and honey to a boil over medium-high heat  Boil for 2-3 minutes, skimming off any foam that rises to the surface.  Add spice mixture and boil for 4 minutes more.  Remove from heat and let stand for 5 minutes.  Place hibiscus flowers in bowl.  Use a fine-mesh strainer to strain syrup into bowl.  Let stand for 10 minutes, then strain into a clean 1-quart container.  Add orange zest, vodka, and brandy.  Top off with remaining water.  Cover and let stand in a cool, dark place for 1 month. Use a coarse sieve or colander to strain out orange zest.  Discard.  Rack or filter liqueur into final container and age for 1 month before serving.  (Cordials from Your Kitchen)

References:
Adriana’s Spice Caravan, Adriana and Rochelle Zabarkes, Storey Publishing, 1997; ISBN: 0-88266-987-7
Basic Herb Cookery, Rose Marie Nichols McGee and N.P. Nichols, Nichols Garden Nursery, 1996; ISBN: 1-887242-00-7
The Complete Book of Herbs, Lesley Bremness, Viking, 1988
The Complete Book of Herbs, Andi Clevely and Katherine Richmond, Smithmark Publishing, 1995; ISBN: 0-8317-1164-7
The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments, Carol Ann Rinzler, Facts on File, 199
The Complete Book of Spices, Jill Norman, Viking, 1990
The Complete Medicinal Herbal, Penelope Ody, Dorling Kindersley, 1993
Cooking with the Healthful Herbs, Jean Rogers, Rodale, 1983
Cordials from Your Kitchen,  Pattie Vargas & Rich Gulling, Storey, 1997; ISBN: 0-88266-986-9
Cosmetics from the Earth, Roy Genders, Alfred van der Marck Editions, 1985; ISBN: 0-912383-20-8
Edible Flowers From Garden to Palate, Cathy Wilkinson Barash, Fulcrum, 1993
The Gourmet Garden, Geraldene Holt, 1990; Bullfinch Press,  ISBN: 0-8212-1815-8
The Healing Garden, Helen Farmer-Knowles, Sterling, 1998; ISBN: 0-8069-1773-3
The Herb Book, John Lust, Bantam Books, 1974
The Herb Companion Cooks, Interweave Press, 1994
The Herb Garden Cookbook, Lucinda Hutson, Texas Monthly Press, 1987
An Herbal Collection, Herb Society of Wake County, 1993
The Herbal Epicure, Carole Ottesen, Ballantine, 2001; ISBN: 0-345-43402-1
The Hot and Spicy Cookbook, Sophie Hale, Quintet Publishing, 1987; ISBN: 1-55521-060-0
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils, Julia Lawless, Element, 1995; ISBN: 1-56619-990-5
The Illustrated Herb Encyclopedia, Kathi Keville, Mallard Press, 1991
In the Kitchen at Shale Hill Farm & Herb Gardens, Patricia Reppert, 1989
Kitchen Herbs, Sal Gilbertie, Bantam, 1988
The Macmillan Treasury of Spices & Natural Flavorings, Jennifer Mulherin, Macmillan, 1988
Magical Herbalism, Scott Cunningham, Llewellyn, 1982
Master Book of Herbalism, Paul Beyerl, Phoenix Publishing, 1984
Monterey‘s Cooking Secrets, Kathleen DeVanna Fish, Bon Vivant Press, 1993
The Natural Beauty Book, Anita Guyton, Thorsons, 1981
Pestos!, Dorothy Rankin, The Crossing Press, 1985
Planetary Herbology, Michael Tierra, Lotus Press, 1988
Season to Taste, Jeannette Ferrary, Louise Fiszer, Simon and Schuster, 1988; ISBN: 0-671-62132-7
Today’s Herbal Kitchen, The Memphis Herb Society, 1995; Tradery House; ISBN: 1-879958-28-7

Sources
Companion Plants, www.companionplants.com  seed

HERBALPEDIA™ is brought to you by Herbalpedia LLC, PO Box 245, Silver Spring, PA 17575-0245; 717-393-3295; FAX: 717-393-9261; email: herbworld17@gmail.com    URL: http://www.herbalpedia.com Editor: Maureen Rogers.  Copyright 2012.  All rights reserved.   Material herein is derived from journals, textbooks, etc. THGMN cannot be held responsible for the validity of the information contained in any reference noted herein, for the misuse of information or any adverse effects by use of any stated material presented.

 

 

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Cumin

0

Posted by admin | Posted in Uncategorized | Posted on 19-03-2017

Cuminum cycinum
[KOO-min-um  SIM-in-um]

Family: Umbelliferae

Other Names: Comino; Anise Acre; Cumin Acre, Cummin; Sweet Cumin; cumin (French);  Kreuzkummel, Romische Kummel (German);  cumino (Italian); comino (Spanish); kammun, kemoun (Arabic); jeera, jeeraka, jira, zeera, aira, sufaid (Indian); (d)jinten (Indonesian); jintan puteh (Malay); cheeregum, jeera, su(du)duru (Sinhalese);  cheeregum (Tamil); Jiraka (Sanskrit)

Description: height: 8 inches; width–6 inches; flowers: tiny, white, sometimes slightly pink in sparse umbel heads; leaves: thin, divided leaves; fruit 1/3 inch long, narrow fruits,  blooms June-July

Cultivation: Annual.  Germinates 10-14 days.  Space 6-10 inches; soil temperature 70F; Soil: well drained, sandy loam is best with a  pH: 4.5-8.2.  Full Sun.  Plant close together so that support each other and keep weed competition at minimum.  Takes about 4 months to mature and intolerant of long periods of dry heat.  Supplemental watering is beneficial during dry periods.   Weed regularly.   Cumin is ready for harvest when the plants begin to wither.  Under favorable conditions a yield of 450-560 kg/ha of dried seeds can be realized.  The home gardener can harvest seedheads as they begin to change color and hang them in paper bags to ripen and dry in an airy place.
World production has been estimated at about 50,000 tons per year.  Cumin is cultivated primarily in China, India, Morocco, Cyprus, Turkey and southern Russia.

Constituents: Essential oil includes mainly aldehydes (up to 60%) including cuminaldehyde;  monoterpene hydrocarbons (up to 52%) including:  pinenes, terpinenes, cymene, phellandrene, myrcene and limonene; farnesene and caryophyllene, cuminic alcohol; fatty oil, pentosan, lemony scented dipentene.

Nutritional profile: One teaspoon has 8 calories.  Provides .4g protein, .5 g fat, .9 g carbohydrates, 20 mg calcium, 1.4 mg iron, 27 IU vitamin A, .2 mg vitamin C

Properties: Carminative; stomachic, diuretic, stimulant, astringent, emmenagogic and antispasmodic.

History: One of the oldest cultivated herbs.  The Myceanes seasoned their food with it around 2000BC and it is found in tombs of Egyptian pharaohs as it was used in the mummification process.  Romans imported it from Egypt and used it like we use black pepper today.  Recommended in a 4th century BC herbal medicine text as a treatment for obesity and urinary and liver problems.  Mentioned in both the Old and New Testament.   Classically, cumin symbolized greed which is why the Roman Emperor, Marcus Aurelius, came to be known privately as ‘Cuminus‘.  Ancient Roman misers were said to have eaten it in the belief that it prevented theft of their objects.  Records tell us that during the 13th & 14th centuries the average price of cumin in Britain was 2 pennies per pound.  By 1419 it was a taxable import in London.

Country lasses used to make their lovers swallow cumin in order to ensure their continued attachment and fidelity.  If the lover were a soldier his sweetheart would give him a newly-made loaf seasoned with cumin, or a glass of wine with powdered cumin mixed into it to ensure his constancy.  It was carried by both bride and groom in their pockets at wedding ceremonies in Germany during the Middle Ages.   Folklore has it that cumin has powers of retention….bread baked was baked with cumin in order to prevent it from being stolen by wood-demons.  Cumin also possessed the power of keeping a thief inside the house along with the bread he was trying to steal.  Theophrastus said of its cultivation that ‘they say that one must curse and abuse it, while sowing, if the crop is to be fair and abundant.’

 

Aromatherapy Use:

EXTRACTION METHOD: Steam distillation from the ripe seeds

CHARACTERISTICS:  a pale yellow or greenish liquid with a warm, soft, spicy-musky scent.  Top note

BLENDS WELL WITH: lavender, lavandin, rosemary, galbanum, rosewood, cardomom, angelica, caraway, chamomile, coriander and oriental-type fragrances

ACTIONS OF THE OIL: anti-oxidant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, aphrodisiac, bactericidal, carminative, depurative, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, larvicidal, nervine, stimulant, tonic

USES:

Circulation, Muscles and Joints: Accumulation of fluids or toxins, poor circulation. Warming effect helpful for muscular pains

Digestive System: colic, dyspepsia, flatulence, indigestion, spasm

Nervous System: debility, headaches, migraine, nervous exhaustion

Reproductive System: aphrodisiac action promotes fertility and libido in both men and women.  Regulates the menstrual cycle.

Other: used in veterinary medicine in digestive preparations.  As a fragrance component in cosmetics and perfumes and a flavor ingredient in many foods and drinks especially meat products and condiments.

BLENDS:

Digestive: 4 drops cumin, 4 drops orange, 4 drops ginger

Reproductive: 4 drops cumin, 4 drops neroli, 2 drops geranium

Emotion: 4 drops cumin, 4 drops mandarin, 4 drops ylang-ylang

Muscular: 4 drops cumin; 4 drops coriander; 4 drops lavender

 

Culinary Use:   Was one of the favorite herbs of Europeans in the Middle Ages, but eventually lost its popularity.  In Germany used along with caraway in making kummel, a caraway-flavored liqueur.  In Holland used to flavor cheese.   Ground caraway seeds can be substituted for ground cumin.  The flavor is much milder but similar.  Lightly roasting the seeds in a dry frying pan before using brings out cumin’s interesting aroma and flavor.  Ground seeds lose flavor and aroma within 1-2 months so buy whole and grind as needed.  Cuminaldehyde is practically insoluble in water (like capsaicin) which is why drinking water doesn’t cool the burning sensation.  What is needed is either alcohol or milkfat.  Tastes good with/in pickles, cabbage, Mexican dishes especially those from the Yucatan, chili, North African dishes such as couscous, Indian dishes such as curries, meat stews, some cheeses, sausages, tomato-based sauces, stuffing mixtures.

 

Energetics: spicy, warm

 

Meridians/Organs affected:  liver, spleen

 

Medicinal Uses:  Cumin seed is used for diarrhea and indigestion.  Specific for headaches caused by ingestion. Hot cumin water is excellent for colds and fevers and is made by boiling a teaspoon of roasted seeds in 3 cups of water.  Honey can be added to soothe a sore throat.  It is supposed to increase lactation and reduce nausea in pregnancy.  Used in a poultice, it relieves swelling of the breast or the testicles.  Smoked in a pipe with ghee, it is taken to relieve the hiccups.  Stimulates the appetite.  Still used in veterinary practice.  Cumin mixed with flour and water is good feed for poultry and it is said if you give tame pigeons cumin it makes them fond of their home and less likely to stray.  Basalt mixed with cumin seeds was a common country remedy for pigeons’ scabby backs and breasts.

 

Ritual Uses:  Gender: Masculine.  Planet: Mars.  Element: Fire. Powers: Protection, Fidelity, Exorcism, Anti-Theft.  In Germany and Italy, cumin is put into bread to keep the wood spirits from stealing it.  Cumin also protects the theft of any object which retains it  Cumin is burned with frankincense for protection and scattered on the floor, sometimes with salt, to drive the evil out.  It is also worn by brides to keep negativity away from the wedding.   The Greeks saw cumin as a symbol of greed, of one’s self being out of balance through an excessive attraction to manifest reality.  This herbe can be used to promote a healthy balance of one’s interaction within both the spiritual and mundane worlds.  It can be used magickally to provide protection for one’s home and one’s kindred.  It has sometimes been employed in modern spells, calling for a small pinch of the ground seed to increase good fortune and prosperity.  Cumin is also found in some recipes designed to increase one’s sexual appetite. And when given to a lover, it will promote fidelity.  Cumin seed when steeped in wine to make a lust potion.  Cumin, when carried, gives peace of mind, and if you grow the plant yourself, you must curse while sowing the seed to obtain a good crop.

 

Recipes:

Cumin Seed Wafers

¾  cup soft butter

1 cup shredded sharp Cheddar cheese

2 cups sifted all-purpose flour

1/2 tsp onion salt

1½  tsp cumin

Cream butter and cheese thoroughly.  Sift flour with onion salt; mix in cumin.  Add flour mixture gradually to cheese and butter, blending well. Form into rolls about 1½  inches in diameter.  Wrap in waxed paper or foil and chill several hours or overnight.  Slice thin and bake on a lightly creased cookie sheet in a 400F oven for about 10 minutes or until lightly browned.  Remove carefully with spatula.  Serve hot or cold.  Makes 3 dozen.  Serve as appetizer or cooled to accompany a salad. (The Spice Islands CookBook)

 

Mulligatawny Soup

2 chicken breasts, cut into chunks

8 oz dried red lentils

2 cloves garlic, crushed

1 bay leaf

1 in piece ginger root, finely chopped

3 dried red chillies

6 black peppercorns, ground

4 large onions, sliced

2 tsp cumin seed, roasted and ground

1 tsp ground turmeric

2/3 cup coconut milk

salt to taste

4 Tbsp butter or ghee

4 thin slices of lemon

Place the chicken and lentils in 7 1/2 cups water.  Add the garlic, bay leaf, ginger, chilies, ground spices and half of the onions.  Bring slowly to the boil and simmer gently for about 45 minutes or until the lentils are soft. Remove the bay leaf and whole chilis and stir in the coconut milk and salt to taste.  Simmer for a further 10-15 minutes.  Meanwhile, heat the butter and fry the remaining onions until deep brown.  Add these to the soup along with the lemon slices just before serving. (The Macmillan Treasury of Spices & Natural Flavorings)

 

Spiced Potato and Cauliflower

1½  lb potatoes

1 medium cauliflower

2 Tbsp oil

2 tsp ground cumin

1 Tbsp finely chopped onion

seeds from 3-4 cardamom pods

1 Tbsp poppy seeds

Salt and lots of freshly ground black pepper

Peel the potatoes and cut them into 1 inch chunks.  Parboil in lots of salted water for 5 minutes, drain and reserve. Cut the cauliflower into bite-sized florets, cover with cold water and leave to stand for half an hour.  Heat the oil in a large frying pan and fry the cumin for 3 or 4 seconds, then add the onion and cardamom seeds and cook for a minute more.  Add the potatoes and cauliflower–not too well drained as the water that adheres will cook the dish–and stir well to coat.  Turn down the heat, cover the pan and cook, stirring from time to time, until the potatoes are cooked but the cauliflower still has a bit of crunch, 12-15 minutes.  Stir in the poppy seeds, season to taste and serve hot. (The Hot and Spicy Cookbook)

 

Scallops and Shiitake in a Cumin Sauce

Makes 4 servings.

3 Tbsp olive oil

3 Tbsp finely minced shallots

2 large garlic cloves, minced

2 large ripe tomatoes, chopped

1 tsp chili powder

½ tsp ground cumin

Salt and pepper to taste

½ lb shiitake mushrooms, stemmed and sliced thinly

1 lb small bay scallops, drained

Juice of ½  a lime

3 Tbsp fresh cilantro leaves (for garnish)

Heat 1 tablespoon of the oil in a skillet or saucepan over medium heat. Add the shallots and garlic and cooked for 1 minute. Then add the tomatoes, chili powder, cumin, salt and pepper and simmer, partially covered, until the liquid has evaporated. Remove from heat.  In a second skillet, heat 2 tablespoons of the oil over medium-high heat. Add the scallops, without crowding, and sauté about 2 minutes a side, or until nicely browned.

Add the tomato sauce, mushrooms and lime juice, and heat through. Serve with the cilantro leaves.

Pan-seared salmon with roasted cumin-coriander crema & chipotle salsa

Salmon

6 8 oz salmon fillets skin intact

1 c Fresh oregano leaves stemmed & finely minced

1 c Fresh basil leaves stemmed & finely minced

1 c Fresh parsley leaves stemmed & finely minced

½  c Olive oil

Cumin-coriander crema

1½  Tbsp Cumin seed

1 Tbsp Coriander seed

1 cup Plain yogurt

2 T Heavy cream

½  Bunch fresh cilantro stemmed and chopped

2 Cloves garlic

Juice of 1 lemon

Chipotle salsa

1 Egg

1 t Ground red chile preferably Chimayo

1 Chipotle chile in adobo

Juice of ½  lemon

1 Clove garlic

1¼  cup Olive oil

Rinse and dry each salmon fillet. It is not necessary to remove the skin from the fillets.  Check for pinbones by running your fingertips over the flesh side of the fillet.  Use pliers or tweezers to remove any bones. In a small bowl stir together the oregano, basil, and parsley.  Pat the herbs onto the flesh side of each fillet, covering well. Refrigerate until ready to cook.  To prepare the crema, combine the cumin and coriander seeds in a small, dry sauté pan over medium heat.  Roast the seeds, shaking the pan frequently, until the aromas are released, about 2 minutes. Remove from the heat and let cool. Place the spices in a spice mill or coffee grinder and grind to pulverize the seeds.  Alternatively, pulverize in a mortar using a pestle. In a small bowl, combine the ground seeds with all the remaining crema ingredients.  Let sit for 30 minutes so the flavors can develop and blend.  Pour through a fine-mesh strainer into a bowl to remove the cilantro leaves.  You will have about 1 cup. (The crema will keep for up to 1 week in the refrigerator.)  To prepare the salsa, place all the ingredients, except the olive oil, in a food processor fitted with the metal blade or in a blender.  Blend thoroughly.  With the motor running, slowly pour in the olive oil in a thin, steady stream, continuing to process until a mayonnaiselike sauce is achieved.  Transfer to a bowl, cover, and refrigerate until serving.   You will have about 1 1/4 cups. (The salsa will keep for up to 2 days in the refrigerator.)  About 15 minutes before serving, place a sauté pan large enough to hold the salmon, with room to spare, over medium heat.

Add the olive oil.  When the oil is just smoking, put the fillets in the pan, herb sides down.  Cook 4 to 5 minutes, then turn and cook on the second side until done, 4 to 5 minutes longer.  Cooking times vary according to taste and the thickness of the fillet.  To serve, spoon the crema onto individual plates, dividing it equally among them.

Place 1 salmon fillet on each plate, herbed sides up, to cover half the crema.  Drizzle the salsa decoratively onto the fillet and then onto the visible half of the crema

Cumin-Scented Corn And Red Pepper Sauté

1 Tbsp vegetable oil

1 Tbsp unsalted butter

2 red bell peppers — diced in pieces  (slightly larger than a corn kernel)

1 small onion — diced in pieces  (slightly larger than a corn kernel)

1 tsp ground cumin

Salt and black pepper — to taste

4 cups frozen corn kernels — thawed

2 tablespoons chopped fresh cilantro

In a large (12-inch) sauté pan over medium heat, heat the oil and butter. Add the diced bell pepper and onion and cook until the bell pepper has softened and the onion is beginning to brown lightly, about 8 minutes. Add the cumin and salt and pepper to taste and cook, stirring, for 1 minute.  Add the corn and cook for 3 to 4 minutes until the corn is heated through. Remove from heat, mix in the cilantro and serve.

 

Jaljeera (Cumin Seed Cooler)

4 Tbsp whole tamarind (soaked in 1 1/3 cups of water)

2 ½ cups water

6 Tbsp jaggery, grated

Salt

1 tsp cayenne powder

1 tsp rock salt

2 tsp cumin powder (dry roasted)

4 Tbsp mint leaves

4 Tbsp coriander leaves, chopped

Squeeze the thick juice from the soaked tamarind and discard the pith and fibers.  Add the water to dilute then stir in the jaggery, salt, cayenne, rock salt and cumin powder and blend completely.  Chill thoroughly  Before serving, add the mint and coriander leaves and serve ice-cold.  (The Indian Spice Kitchen)

 

Baharat

A fiery preparation from Africa used to spice meats and vegetables.

½  nutmeg, grated

1 Tbsp black peppercorns

1Tbsp coriander seeds

1 Tbsp cumin seeds

1 Tbsp cloves

a small piece of cinnamon

seeds from 6 green cardamoms

2 Tbsp paprika

1 tsp ground chili

Grind all the ingredients together.  The mixture will keep for 3-4 months stored in an airtight jar.

 

Chicken with Dried Fruit

1 cup plain yogurt

8 cardamom pods

1 tsp salt

6  whole cloves

Freshly ground black pepper

2-inch cinnamon stick

1 tsp ground cumin

3 bay leaves

1 tsp ground coriander

2½  Tbsp blanched slivered almonds

¼  tsp cayenne pepper

2½  Tbsp golden raisins

4 Tbsp minced coriander leaves

3½  lb chicken pieces

4 Tbsp vegetable oil

Put the yogurt in a bowl and beat it lightly until smooth and creamy.  Add ½  teaspoon of the salt, some black pepper, the cumin, coriander, cayenne, and green coriander.  Mix and set aside.  Salt and pepper the chicken pieces on both sides using the remaining ½  teaspoon salt.  Heat the oil in a wide, preferably nonstick pan over medium-high heat.  When hot, add the cardamom, cloves, cinnamon, and bay leaves.  Stir once and add as many chicken pieces as the pan will hold easily in a single layer.  Brown the chicken on both sides and set aside in a large bowl.  Brown all the chicken this way and remove to the bowl.

Into the same hot oil, add the almonds and raisins.  Stir quickly. The almonds should turn golden and the raisins should plump up–this should happen very fast.  Put the chicken and its accumulated juices back into the pan. Add the seasoned yogurt.  Stir to mix and bring to a simmer. Cover, turn heat to low, and simmer gently for 20 minutes, stirring once or twice.  Remove cover, turn the heat up a bit, and reduce the sauce until it is thick and just clings to the chicken pieces, turning the chicken pieces over gently as you do so.  Remove large whole spices before serving.  (Madhur Jaffrey’s Spice Kitchen)

 

Kofta Kebabs

2 lb minced lamb

1 onion, grated

2 tsp ground cumin

2 tsp ground coriander

1 ½ Tbsp pine nuts

lemon wedges

salt and pepper

Start by placing the minced lamb in a bowl; add the grated onion, cumin and coriander, the pine nuts and seasoning.  Mix well.  When that is done, take tablespoons of the mixture and form them into sausage shapes.  Then place them on skewers and grill or barbecue until they are brown.  Serve with lemon wedges, pitta bread or rice and salad.  (The Spices of Life)

 

Spiced Lentil Soup

2 onions, finely chopped

2 garlic cloves, crushed

4 tomatoes, roughly chopped

½ tsp ground turmeric

1 tsp ground cumin

6 cardamoms

½ cinnamon stick

1 cup red lentils

14 oz can coconut milk

1 Tbsp fresh lime juice

salt and ground black pepper

cumin seeds, to garnish

            Put the onions, garlic, tomatoes, turmeric, cumin, cardamoms, cinnamon an lentils into a saucepan with 3 ¾ cups water.  Bring to a boil, lower the heat, cover and simmer gently for 20 minutes or until the lentils are soft.  Remove  the cardamoms and cinnamon stick, then purée the mixture in a blender or food processor.  Press the soup through a strainer, then return it to the clean pan.  Reserve a little of the coconut milk for the garnish and add the remainder to pan with the lime juice.  Stir well.  Season with salt and pepper.  Reheat the soup gently without boiling. Swirl in the reserved coconut milk, garnish with cumin seeds and serve  (The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices)

 

Tandoori Sole

2 tsp cumin

½  tsp turmeric

½  tsp cloves

½  tsp cardamom seeds

½  tsp chili powder

½  tsp freshly ground black pepper

½  tsp yellow mustard seeds

1 medium onion, chopped

2 cloves garlic, finely chopped

8 oz yogurt

6 fillets sole or any other white fish

Preheat oven to 350F.  Grind the spices together and blend with the onion and garlic.  Mix into the yogurt.  Marinate the fish in the yogurt mixture for 6 hours.  Remove the fish from the marinade, wrap in foil and bake for 30 minutes. (Creative Cooking with Spices)

 

The Thyme Garden’s Harissa

2 oz dried red chilis

2 cloves garlic

1 tsp crumbled dried mint

1 tsp freshly ground caraway seeds

2 tsp freshly ground cumin seeds

2 tsp freshly ground coriander seeds

2 Tbsp extra-virgin olive oil

Seed the chilis, tear them into pieces, and soak them in warm water until they are soft-about 20 minutes. While the chilis are soaking, peel, crush, and pound the garlic with a mortar and pestle, or process the peeled cloves in a food processor.  Pound or process the chilis and the mint with the garlic.  Mix in the ground seeds. Add the olive oil to form a paste. When ready to use, coat meat and let it marinate for at least 3 hours (The Herbal Epicure)

 

References:

Aromatherapy Blends & Remedies, Franzesca Watson, Thorsons, 1995

A Compendium of Herbal Magick, Paul Beyerl, Phoenix Publishing, 1998; 0-919345-45-X

The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments, Carol Ann Rinzler, Facts on File, 1990

The Complete Book of Spices, Jill Norman, Viking, 1990

Cooking with Spices, Carolyn Heal & Michael Allsop, David & Charles, 1983

Creative Cooking with Spices, Jane Walker, Chartwell, 1985

Culinary Herbs, Ernest Small, NRC Research Press, 1997

The Encyclopedia of Herbs And Spices, Hermes House, 1997

The Encyclopedia of Herbs, Spices & Flavorings, Elisabeth Lambert Ortiz, Dorling Kindersley, 1992

Encyclopedia of Magical Herbs, Scott Cunningham, Llewellwyn Publications, 1982, ISBN: 978-0 87542-122-3

Exotic Spices, Rosamond Richardson, Salem House, 1985

The Herb & Spice Cookbook, Sheryl & Mel London, Rodale, 1983

The Herbal Epicure, Carole Ottesen, Ballantine, 2001; ISBN: 0-345-43402-1

The Hot & Spicy Cookbook, Sophie Hale, Chartwell, 1987

The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils, Julia Lawless, Element, 1997

The Illustrated Herb Encyclopedia, Kathi Keville, Mallard Press, 1991

The Indian Spice Kitchen, Monisha Bharadwaj, Dutton, 1997

The Macmillan Treasury of Spices & Natural Flavorings, Jennifer Mulherin, Macmillan, 1988

Madhur Jaffrey’s Spice Kitchen, Madhur Jaffrey, Carol Southern Books, 1993

Planetary Herbology, Michael Tierra, Lotus Press, 1988

The Spice Islands Cook Book, Lane Book Company, 1983

Spices of Life, Troth Wells, Second Story Press, 1996

 

 

 

HERBALPEDIA™ is brought to you by The Herb Growing & Marketing Network, PO Box 245, Silver Spring, PA 17575-0245; 717-393-3295; FAX: 717-393-9261; email: herbworld@aol.com    URL: http://www.herbalpedia.com Editor: Maureen Rogers.  Copyright 2014.  All rights reserved.   Material herein is derived from journals, textbooks, etc. THGMN cannot be held responsible for the validity of the information contained in any reference noted herein, for the misuse of information or any adverse effects by use of any stated material presented.

 

 

Properties: Carminative; stomachic, diuretic, stimulant, astringent, emmenagogic and antispasmodic.

 

History: One of the oldest cultivated herbs.  The Myceanes seasoned their food with it around 2000BC and it is found in tombs of Egyptian pharaohs as it was used in the mummification process.  Romans imported it from Egypt and used it like we use black pepper today.  Recommended in a 4th century BC herbal medicine text as a treatment for obesity and urinary and liver problems.  Mentioned in both the Old and New Testament.   Classically, cumin symbolized greed which is why the Roman Emperor, Marcus Aurelius, came to be known privately as ‘Cuminus‘.  Ancient Roman misers were said to have eaten it in the belief that it prevented theft of their objects.  Records tell us that during the 13th & 14th centuries the average price of cumin in Britain was 2 pennies per pound.  By 1419 it was a taxable import in London.

Country lasses used to make their lovers swallow cumin in order to ensure their continued attachment and fidelity.  If the lover were a soldier his sweetheart would give him a newly-made loaf seasoned with cumin, or a glass of wine with powdered cumin mixed into it to ensure his constancy.  It was carried by both bride and groom in their pockets at wedding ceremonies in Germany during the Middle Ages.   Folklore has it that cumin has powers of retention….bread baked was baked with cumin in order to prevent it from being stolen by wood-demons.  Cumin also possessed the power of keeping a thief inside the house along with the bread he was trying to steal.  Theophrastus said of its cultivation that ‘they say that one must curse and abuse it, while sowing, if the crop is to be fair and abundant.’

 

Aromatherapy Use:

EXTRACTION METHOD: Steam distillation from the ripe seeds

CHARACTERISTICS:  a pale yellow or greenish liquid with a warm, soft, spicy-musky scent.  Top note

BLENDS WELL WITH: lavender, lavandin, rosemary, galbanum, rosewood, cardomom, angelica, caraway, chamomile, coriander and oriental-type fragrances

ACTIONS OF THE OIL: anti-oxidant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitoxic, aphrodisiac, bactericidal, carminative, depurative, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, larvicidal, nervine, stimulant, tonic

USES:

Circulation, Muscles and Joints: Accumulation of fluids or toxins, poor circulation. Warming effect helpful for muscular pains

Digestive System: colic, dyspepsia, flatulence, indigestion, spasm

Nervous System: debility, headaches, migraine, nervous exhaustion

Reproductive System: aphrodisiac action promotes fertility and libido in both men and women.  Regulates the menstrual cycle.

Other: used in veterinary medicine in digestive preparations.  As a fragrance component in cosmetics and perfumes and a flavor ingredient in many foods and drinks especially meat products and condiments.

BLENDS:

Digestive: 4 drops cumin, 4 drops orange, 4 drops ginger

Reproductive: 4 drops cumin, 4 drops neroli, 2 drops geranium

Emotion: 4 drops cumin, 4 drops mandarin, 4 drops ylang-ylang

Muscular: 4 drops cumin; 4 drops coriander; 4 drops lavender

 

Culinary Use:   Was one of the favorite herbs of Europeans in the Middle Ages, but eventually lost its popularity.  In Germany used along with caraway in making kummel, a caraway-flavored liqueur.  In Holland used to flavor cheese.   Ground caraway seeds can be substituted for ground cumin.  The flavor is much milder but similar.  Lightly roasting the seeds in a dry frying pan before using brings out cumin’s interesting aroma and flavor.  Ground seeds lose flavor and aroma within 1-2 months so buy whole and grind as needed.  Cuminaldehyde is practically insoluble in water (like capsaicin) which is why drinking water doesn’t cool the burning sensation.  What is needed is either alcohol or milkfat.  Tastes good with/in pickles, cabbage, Mexican dishes especially those from the Yucatan, chili, North African dishes such as couscous, Indian dishes such as curries, meat stews, some cheeses, sausages, tomato-based sauces, stuffing mixtures.

 

Energetics: spicy, warm

 

Meridians/Organs affected:  liver, spleen

 

Medicinal Uses:  Cumin seed is used for diarrhea and indigestion.  Specific for headaches caused by ingestion. Hot cumin water is excellent for colds and fevers and is made by boiling a teaspoon of roasted seeds in 3 cups of water.  Honey can be added to soothe a sore throat.  It is supposed to increase lactation and reduce nausea in pregnancy.  Used in a poultice, it relieves swelling of the breast or the testicles.  Smoked in a pipe with ghee, it is taken to relieve the hiccups.  Stimulates the appetite.  Still used in veterinary practice.  Cumin mixed with flour and water is good feed for poultry and it is said if you give tame pigeons cumin it makes them fond of their home and less likely to stray.  Basalt mixed with cumin seeds was a common country remedy for pigeons’ scabby backs and breasts.

 

Ritual Uses:  Gender: Masculine.  Planet: Mars.  Element: Fire. Powers: Protection, Fidelity, Exorcism, Anti-Theft.  In Germany and Italy, cumin is put into bread to keep the wood spirits from stealing it.  Cumin also protects the theft of any object which retains it  Cumin is burned with frankincense for protection and scattered on the floor, sometimes with salt, to drive the evil out.  It is also worn by brides to keep negativity away from the wedding.   The Greeks saw cumin as a symbol of greed, of one’s self being out of balance through an excessive attraction to manifest reality.  This herbe can be used to promote a healthy balance of one’s interaction within both the spiritual and mundane worlds.  It can be used magickally to provide protection for one’s home and one’s kindred.  It has sometimes been employed in modern spells, calling for a small pinch of the ground seed to increase good fortune and prosperity.  Cumin is also found in some recipes designed to increase one’s sexual appetite. And when given to a lover, it will promote fidelity.  Cumin seed when steeped in wine to make a lust potion.  Cumin, when carried, gives peace of mind, and if you grow the plant yourself, you must curse while sowing the seed to obtain a good crop.

 

Recipes:

Cumin Seed Wafers

¾  cup soft butter

1 cup shredded sharp Cheddar cheese

2 cups sifted all-purpose flour

1/2 tsp onion salt

1½  tsp cumin

Cream butter and cheese thoroughly.  Sift flour with onion salt; mix in cumin.  Add flour mixture gradually to cheese and butter, blending well. Form into rolls about 1½  inches in diameter.  Wrap in waxed paper or foil and chill several hours or overnight.  Slice thin and bake on a lightly creased cookie sheet in a 400F oven for about 10 minutes or until lightly browned.  Remove carefully with spatula.  Serve hot or cold.  Makes 3 dozen.  Serve as appetizer or cooled to accompany a salad. (The Spice Islands CookBook)

 

Mulligatawny Soup

2 chicken breasts, cut into chunks

8 oz dried red lentils

2 cloves garlic, crushed

1 bay leaf

1 in piece ginger root, finely chopped

3 dried red chillies

6 black peppercorns, ground

4 large onions, sliced

2 tsp cumin seed, roasted and ground

1 tsp ground turmeric

2/3 cup coconut milk

salt to taste

4 Tbsp butter or ghee

4 thin slices of lemon

Place the chicken and lentils in 7 1/2 cups water.  Add the garlic, bay leaf, ginger, chilies, ground spices and half of the onions.  Bring slowly to the boil and simmer gently for about 45 minutes or until the lentils are soft. Remove the bay leaf and whole chilis and stir in the coconut milk and salt to taste.  Simmer for a further 10-15 minutes.  Meanwhile, heat the butter and fry the remaining onions until deep brown.  Add these to the soup along with the lemon slices just before serving. (The Macmillan Treasury of Spices & Natural Flavorings)

 

Spiced Potato and Cauliflower

1½  lb potatoes

1 medium cauliflower

2 Tbsp oil

2 tsp ground cumin

1 Tbsp finely chopped onion

seeds from 3-4 cardamom pods

1 Tbsp poppy seeds

Salt and lots of freshly ground black pepper

Peel the potatoes and cut them into 1 inch chunks.  Parboil in lots of salted water for 5 minutes, drain and reserve. Cut the cauliflower into bite-sized florets, cover with cold water and leave to stand for half an hour.  Heat the oil in a large frying pan and fry the cumin for 3 or 4 seconds, then add the onion and cardamom seeds and cook for a minute more.  Add the potatoes and cauliflower–not too well drained as the water that adheres will cook the dish–and stir well to coat.  Turn down the heat, cover the pan and cook, stirring from time to time, until the potatoes are cooked but the cauliflower still has a bit of crunch, 12-15 minutes.  Stir in the poppy seeds, season to taste and serve hot. (The Hot and Spicy Cookbook)

 

Scallops and Shiitake in a Cumin Sauce

Makes 4 servings.

3 Tbsp olive oil

3 Tbsp finely minced shallots

2 large garlic cloves, minced

2 large ripe tomatoes, chopped

1 tsp chili powder

½ tsp ground cumin

Salt and pepper to taste

½ lb shiitake mushrooms, stemmed and sliced thinly

1 lb small bay scallops, drained

Juice of ½  a lime

3 Tbsp fresh cilantro leaves (for garnish)

Heat 1 tablespoon of the oil in a skillet or saucepan over medium heat. Add the shallots and garlic and cooked for 1 minute. Then add the tomatoes, chili powder, cumin, salt and pepper and simmer, partially covered, until the liquid has evaporated. Remove from heat.  In a second skillet, heat 2 tablespoons of the oil over medium-high heat. Add the scallops, without crowding, and sauté about 2 minutes a side, or until nicely browned.

Add the tomato sauce, mushrooms and lime juice, and heat through. Serve with the cilantro leaves.

Pan-seared salmon with roasted cumin-coriander crema & chipotle salsa

Salmon

6 8 oz salmon fillets skin intact

1 c Fresh oregano leaves stemmed & finely minced

1 c Fresh basil leaves stemmed & finely minced

1 c Fresh parsley leaves stemmed & finely minced

½  c Olive oil

Cumin-coriander crema

1½  Tbsp Cumin seed

1 Tbsp Coriander seed

1 cup Plain yogurt

2 T Heavy cream

½  Bunch fresh cilantro stemmed and chopped

2 Cloves garlic

Juice of 1 lemon

Chipotle salsa

1 Egg

1 t Ground red chile preferably Chimayo

1 Chipotle chile in adobo

Juice of ½  lemon

1 Clove garlic

1¼  cup Olive oil

Rinse and dry each salmon fillet. It is not necessary to remove the skin from the fillets.  Check for pinbones by running your fingertips over the flesh side of the fillet.  Use pliers or tweezers to remove any bones. In a small bowl stir together the oregano, basil, and parsley.  Pat the herbs onto the flesh side of each fillet, covering well. Refrigerate until ready to cook.  To prepare the crema, combine the cumin and coriander seeds in a small, dry sauté pan over medium heat.  Roast the seeds, shaking the pan frequently, until the aromas are released, about 2 minutes. Remove from the heat and let cool. Place the spices in a spice mill or coffee grinder and grind to pulverize the seeds.  Alternatively, pulverize in a mortar using a pestle. In a small bowl, combine the ground seeds with all the remaining crema ingredients.  Let sit for 30 minutes so the flavors can develop and blend.  Pour through a fine-mesh strainer into a bowl to remove the cilantro leaves.  You will have about 1 cup. (The crema will keep for up to 1 week in the refrigerator.)  To prepare the salsa, place all the ingredients, except the olive oil, in a food processor fitted with the metal blade or in a blender.  Blend thoroughly.  With the motor running, slowly pour in the olive oil in a thin, steady stream, continuing to process until a mayonnaiselike sauce is achieved.  Transfer to a bowl, cover, and refrigerate until serving.   You will have about 1 1/4 cups. (The salsa will keep for up to 2 days in the refrigerator.)  About 15 minutes before serving, place a sauté pan large enough to hold the salmon, with room to spare, over medium heat.

Add the olive oil.  When the oil is just smoking, put the fillets in the pan, herb sides down.  Cook 4 to 5 minutes, then turn and cook on the second side until done, 4 to 5 minutes longer.  Cooking times vary according to taste and the thickness of the fillet.  To serve, spoon the crema onto individual plates, dividing it equally among them.

Place 1 salmon fillet on each plate, herbed sides up, to cover half the crema.  Drizzle the salsa decoratively onto the fillet and then onto the visible half of the crema

Cumin-Scented Corn And Red Pepper Sauté

1 Tbsp vegetable oil

1 Tbsp unsalted butter

2 red bell peppers — diced in pieces  (slightly larger than a corn kernel)

1 small onion — diced in pieces  (slightly larger than a corn kernel)

1 tsp ground cumin

Salt and black pepper — to taste

4 cups frozen corn kernels — thawed

2 tablespoons chopped fresh cilantro

In a large (12-inch) sauté pan over medium heat, heat the oil and butter. Add the diced bell pepper and onion and cook until the bell pepper has softened and the onion is beginning to brown lightly, about 8 minutes. Add the cumin and salt and pepper to taste and cook, stirring, for 1 minute.  Add the corn and cook for 3 to 4 minutes until the corn is heated through. Remove from heat, mix in the cilantro and serve.

 

Jaljeera (Cumin Seed Cooler)

4 Tbsp whole tamarind (soaked in 1 1/3 cups of water)

2 ½ cups water

6 Tbsp jaggery, grated

Salt

1 tsp cayenne powder

1 tsp rock salt

2 tsp cumin powder (dry roasted)

4 Tbsp mint leaves

4 Tbsp coriander leaves, chopped

Squeeze the thick juice from the soaked tamarind and discard the pith and fibers.  Add the water to dilute then stir in the jaggery, salt, cayenne, rock salt and cumin powder and blend completely.  Chill thoroughly  Before serving, add the mint and coriander leaves and serve ice-cold.  (The Indian Spice Kitchen)

 

Baharat

A fiery preparation from Africa used to spice meats and vegetables.

½  nutmeg, grated

1 Tbsp black peppercorns

1Tbsp coriander seeds

1 Tbsp cumin seeds

1 Tbsp cloves

a small piece of cinnamon

seeds from 6 green cardamoms

2 Tbsp paprika

1 tsp ground chili

Grind all the ingredients together.  The mixture will keep for 3-4 months stored in an airtight jar.

 

Chicken with Dried Fruit

1 cup plain yogurt

8 cardamom pods

1 tsp salt

6  whole cloves

Freshly ground black pepper

2-inch cinnamon stick

1 tsp ground cumin

3 bay leaves

1 tsp ground coriander

2½  Tbsp blanched slivered almonds

¼  tsp cayenne pepper

2½  Tbsp golden raisins

4 Tbsp minced coriander leaves

3½  lb chicken pieces

4 Tbsp vegetable oil

Put the yogurt in a bowl and beat it lightly until smooth and creamy.  Add ½  teaspoon of the salt, some black pepper, the cumin, coriander, cayenne, and green coriander.  Mix and set aside.  Salt and pepper the chicken pieces on both sides using the remaining ½  teaspoon salt.  Heat the oil in a wide, preferably nonstick pan over medium-high heat.  When hot, add the cardamom, cloves, cinnamon, and bay leaves.  Stir once and add as many chicken pieces as the pan will hold easily in a single layer.  Brown the chicken on both sides and set aside in a large bowl.  Brown all the chicken this way and remove to the bowl.

Into the same hot oil, add the almonds and raisins.  Stir quickly. The almonds should turn golden and the raisins should plump up–this should happen very fast.  Put the chicken and its accumulated juices back into the pan. Add the seasoned yogurt.  Stir to mix and bring to a simmer. Cover, turn heat to low, and simmer gently for 20 minutes, stirring once or twice.  Remove cover, turn the heat up a bit, and reduce the sauce until it is thick and just clings to the chicken pieces, turning the chicken pieces over gently as you do so.  Remove large whole spices before serving.  (Madhur Jaffrey’s Spice Kitchen)

 

Kofta Kebabs

2 lb minced lamb

1 onion, grated

2 tsp ground cumin

2 tsp ground coriander

1 ½ Tbsp pine nuts

lemon wedges

salt and pepper

Start by placing the minced lamb in a bowl; add the grated onion, cumin and coriander, the pine nuts and seasoning.  Mix well.  When that is done, take tablespoons of the mixture and form them into sausage shapes.  Then place them on skewers and grill or barbecue until they are brown.  Serve with lemon wedges, pitta bread or rice and salad.  (The Spices of Life)

 

Spiced Lentil Soup

2 onions, finely chopped

2 garlic cloves, crushed

4 tomatoes, roughly chopped

½ tsp ground turmeric

1 tsp ground cumin

6 cardamoms

½ cinnamon stick

1 cup red lentils

14 oz can coconut milk

1 Tbsp fresh lime juice

salt and ground black pepper

cumin seeds, to garnish

            Put the onions, garlic, tomatoes, turmeric, cumin, cardamoms, cinnamon an lentils into a saucepan with 3 ¾ cups water.  Bring to a boil, lower the heat, cover and simmer gently for 20 minutes or until the lentils are soft.  Remove  the cardamoms and cinnamon stick, then purée the mixture in a blender or food processor.  Press the soup through a strainer, then return it to the clean pan.  Reserve a little of the coconut milk for the garnish and add the remainder to pan with the lime juice.  Stir well.  Season with salt and pepper.  Reheat the soup gently without boiling. Swirl in the reserved coconut milk, garnish with cumin seeds and serve  (The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices)

 

Tandoori Sole

2 tsp cumin

½  tsp turmeric

½  tsp cloves

½  tsp cardamom seeds

½  tsp chili powder

½  tsp freshly ground black pepper

½  tsp yellow mustard seeds

1 medium onion, chopped

2 cloves garlic, finely chopped

8 oz yogurt

6 fillets sole or any other white fish

Preheat oven to 350F.  Grind the spices together and blend with the onion and garlic.  Mix into the yogurt.  Marinate the fish in the yogurt mixture for 6 hours.  Remove the fish from the marinade, wrap in foil and bake for 30 minutes. (Creative Cooking with Spices)

 

The Thyme Garden’s Harissa

2 oz dried red chilis

2 cloves garlic

1 tsp crumbled dried mint

1 tsp freshly ground caraway seeds

2 tsp freshly ground cumin seeds

2 tsp freshly ground coriander seeds

2 Tbsp extra-virgin olive oil

Seed the chilis, tear them into pieces, and soak them in warm water until they are soft-about 20 minutes. While the chilis are soaking, peel, crush, and pound the garlic with a mortar and pestle, or process the peeled cloves in a food processor.  Pound or process the chilis and the mint with the garlic.  Mix in the ground seeds. Add the olive oil to form a paste. When ready to use, coat meat and let it marinate for at least 3 hours (The Herbal Epicure)

 

References:

Aromatherapy Blends & Remedies, Franzesca Watson, Thorsons, 1995

A Compendium of Herbal Magick, Paul Beyerl, Phoenix Publishing, 1998; 0-919345-45-X

The Complete Book of Herbs, Spices and Condiments, Carol Ann Rinzler, Facts on File, 1990

The Complete Book of Spices, Jill Norman, Viking, 1990

Cooking with Spices, Carolyn Heal & Michael Allsop, David & Charles, 1983

Creative Cooking with Spices, Jane Walker, Chartwell, 1985

Culinary Herbs, Ernest Small, NRC Research Press, 1997

The Encyclopedia of Herbs And Spices, Hermes House, 1997

The Encyclopedia of Herbs, Spices & Flavorings, Elisabeth Lambert Ortiz, Dorling Kindersley, 1992

Encyclopedia of Magical Herbs, Scott Cunningham, Llewellwyn Publications, 1982, ISBN: 978-0 87542-122-3

Exotic Spices, Rosamond Richardson, Salem House, 1985

The Herb & Spice Cookbook, Sheryl & Mel London, Rodale, 1983

The Herbal Epicure, Carole Ottesen, Ballantine, 2001; ISBN: 0-345-43402-1

The Hot & Spicy Cookbook, Sophie Hale, Chartwell, 1987

The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils, Julia Lawless, Element, 1997

The Illustrated Herb Encyclopedia, Kathi Keville, Mallard Press, 1991

The Indian Spice Kitchen, Monisha Bharadwaj, Dutton, 1997

The Macmillan Treasury of Spices & Natural Flavorings, Jennifer Mulherin, Macmillan, 1988

Madhur Jaffrey’s Spice Kitchen, Madhur Jaffrey, Carol Southern Books, 1993

Planetary Herbology, Michael Tierra, Lotus Press, 1988

The Spice Islands Cook Book, Lane Book Company, 1983

Spices of Life, Troth Wells, Second Story Press, 1996

 

 

 

HERBALPEDIA™ is brought to you by The Herb Growing & Marketing Network, PO Box 245, Silver Spring, PA 17575-0245; 717-393-3295; FAX: 717-393-9261; email: herbworld@aol.com    URL: http://www.herbalpedia.com Editor: Maureen Rogers.  Copyright 2014.  All rights reserved.   Material herein is derived from journals, textbooks, etc. THGMN cannot be held responsible for the validity of the information contained in any reference noted herein, for the misuse of information or any adverse effects by use of any stated material presented.

 

 

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Purslane

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Posted by admin | Posted in Purslane | Posted on 28-11-2016

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Portulaca oleracea
[por-tew-LAK-uh awl-lur-RAY-see-uh]

Family:  Portulacaceae

Names: pussley, pursley, pigweed, garden purslane verdolage, verdolaga; Portulak (German); purslane, pourpier, pourcellaine (French); porcellana, portulaca (Italian); Gartenportulak (German); Verdolaja, Verdolaga (Spanish); ma chi xian (Chinese); Tségha’niłchi’ – breeze through rock (Navajo); xucul (Mayan)

Description: Thick, matlike groundcover, very succulent with red stems.  It grows to a height of 8 inches and a width of 10 inches.  The flowers are bright yellow and 3/8 inch across.  The leaves are thick, succulent ovals up to 1 ¼ inches long  It blooms from June to September.  It is possibly native to India but well established from Greece to China and introduced elsewhere.  Golden or yellow purslane Portulaca oleracea sative is more attractive and grows more erect but has the same taste.

Cultivation: Annual and sometimes biennial it germinates in 7-15 days.  Space 6-8 inches apart in soil that is well drained and well watered with a pH of 5.5-8 in full sun.  Ready to harvest in 6-8 weeks.  If the plants get ahead during the growing season, cut them back to 3-4 inches and they will send out tender new shoots within 7-10 days.  Old stems may be stripped of their leaves and pickled.

History:  The botanical name oleracea is Latin for “potherb”.  Portulaca may mean “milk carrier,” from potare, Latin “to carry” and lac, “milk”, describing the juice that exudes from the broken stems.  Some scholars think it is derived from portula, a “little gate,” due to the gatelike cover on the seed capsules.  The Romans enjoyed puns and called purslane porcella, or “little pig,” as a pun on its name.  This became the Italian porcellana, the old French porcelaine and eventually “purslane” in English. Oleracea means “of the vegetable garden or kitchen.” It was brought north in to Europe and provided not only food, but was one of the four “cold” seeds of medieval medicine that cooled “hot” complaints such as “heat in the liver.”  High in vitamin C, it used to be a scurvy remedy.  By the 1700s, it had made itself so much at home in the US that some regarded it as a native American plant.  It was thought to be a cure for “blastings by lighting or planets and burning of gunpowder.”

Constituents:  alkaloids, glycoside, sterols, essential oil, calcium salts, DOPA, resins, organic acids, vitamin C (600 milligrams per 100 grams of fresh plant), oxalic acid, potassium slats.  Chinese research also lists noradrenaline and dopamine as constituents

Energetics: sour; cold

Meridians/Organs affected: colon, liver, spleen, large intestine

Properties: alterative, refrigerant, bactericide, antipyretic, antidote, antidysenteric, antiphlogistic

Ritual Uses:  Purslane was believed to guard against evil spirits if strewn around a person’s bed. It was considered to be a sure cure for blastings by lightening and burning of gunpowder. Purslane is ideal for those made uneasy by the darkness of night, who fall prey to nightmares and who need protection against those unknown things which roam the dark.  Growing purslane beneath the bedroom window, placing it in a vase on one’s nightstand or using a bunch of dried purslane to aspurge the bedroom when cleaning it are a few methods available.  Purslane has the ability to dispel unwholesome energy through the generation of positive energy. It can be added to Mystic Rites Incense to assist in the development of your higher spiritual forces.   Can be used as an elixir or magickal tonic.  Herb of the Moon.

Culinary Uses:  Purslane has a crisp texture and a sharp, almost hot, vinegary flavor.  Sometimes compared to asparagus in taste, purslane is used in salads and soups, steamed as a garnish, or is pickled for winter salads.  It has long been eaten in the Middle East and India and is found in the Middle Eastern salad fattoush.  In China, the herb is boiled, then mixed with eggs.  Australian Aborigines ground the seeds, making a paste eaten fresh or baked.  Settlers boiled and ate the leaves.  The French soup bonne femme combines purslane with French sorrel.  Mexicans eat purslane as a side dish.  They boil the leaves for a few minutes, then fry them in oil with a little chopped onion, adding slices of cheese and serving them when the cheese is hot and melting.

Eaten either raw in salad or steamed in mole verde, this succulent annual is traditionally served in Mexico in a pork stew – espinazo con verdolagas – with a tomatillo-based sauce.  Add to scrambled eggs or Mexican tomato sauce.  Long cooking causes it to develop a slippery texture and change of color, so add the chopped leaves no sooner than the last minute of cooking times. 

Medicinal uses:  The sticky, broken leaves of fresh purslane sooth burns, stings and swellings.  The juice was once used for treating earaches and to “fasten” teeth and soothe sore gums.  Purslane has been considered valuable in the treatment of urinary and digestive problems.  The diuretic effect of the juice makes it useful in the alleviation of bladder ailments-for example, difficulty in passing urine. The plant’s mucilaginous properties also make it a soothing remedy for gastrointestinal problems such as dysentery and diarrhea.  In Europe it’s been turned into a cough syrup for sore throats.  Purslane is the richest known plant source of Omega-3 acids, found mostly in fish oils.  These fatty acids reduce blood cholesterol and pressure, clotting, and inflammation and may increase immunity.   Recommended medicinal dosage is 15-30 grams.   Use for scours in goats.

Crush the fresh plant material to apply as a poultice to stop bleeding and heal ulcers, wounds and sores.  Fresh juice of the plant can be taken with sugar and honey to relieve dry coughs.  Mash stems and leaves to apply as a poultice over the forehead to alleviate headaches caused by over-exposure to the sun.

A dose of 1.5 and 2.0 gm/kg of the entire dried plant showed hypoglycemic activity in rabbits after 8 and 12 hours.  Uterine stimulant effect was demonstrated in mice and rats using a water extract of the leaves.

TCM: In Chinese herbal medicine, purslane is employed for similar problems and for appendicitis.  The Chinese also use the plant as an antidote for wasp stings and snake bite.  Clinical trials in China indicate that purslane has a mild antibiotic effect.  In one study, the juice was shown to be effective in treating hookworms.  Other studies suggest that it is valuable against bacillary dysentery.  When injected, extracts of the herb induce powerful contractions of the uterus.  Taken orally, purslane juice weakens uterine contractions.    Indications: amoebic dysentery; hemorrhoids; abscesses due to heat excess.  The Chinese eat this plant as a vegetable; may be used safely in high dosages; the fresh herb is best for all therapeutic purposes.  Dosage 10-30g

Navajo: The plant is said to cure stomachache and is used in a smoke treatment to clean out the body; the smoke causes the patient to vomit and thus, cleans him out.

Toxicity: Do not take medicinally during pregnancy

Recipes:
Purslane Salad with Avocado and Bacon
4 handfuls purslane leaves about 7 oz trimmed weight
creamy dressing
1 avocado
juice of ½ lemon or 1 lime
5 oz streaky bacon, diced small
fresh herbs in season, finely chopped
Prepare the purslane leaves. Make a bed of them on a round serving dish and sprinkle with some dressing.  Peel the avocado and cut in 8 segments.  Arrange them like the spokes of a wheel over the purslane.  Sprinkle with lemon or lime juice.  Fry the bacon dice without any fat in a heavy-based pan until golden and crusty.  Lift them out of the rendered fat with a slotted spoon an scatter them over the salad.  Sprinkle on the chopped herbs and serve

CREAMY DRESSING
salt and pepper
10 oz oil
3 ½ oz vinegar
1 tsp mustard
1 tsp sugar or honey
1 egg
Blend or process ingredients in a blender or food processor thinning down if necessary with a little cold water.  Store in a covered jar for up to 4 days.

Warm Salad of Purslane with Chicken Livers and Herb Vinegar
4 good handfuls purslane, about 7 oz trimmed weight
1 oz oil, of which a proportion can be walnut oil
4 Tbsp vinegar
1 tsp coarse grain mustard
1 tsp honey
salt and pepper
12 oz chicken livers, trimmed and chopped
2 Tbsp oil
3 Tbsp flavored vinegar
Pull the leaves off the purslane, wash and spin them dry; discard the stalks.  Whisk together the oil, vinegar, mustard, honey, salt and pepper to make a thick dressing.  Arrange the purslane on four plates and sprinkle the dressing on top.  Season the chicken livers and fry them in the hot oil for 2-3 minutes until just stiffened but still pink inside.  Scatter them over the salads.  Deglaze the pan with the vinegar and sprinkle on top.  Serve at once.  (Fruits of the Forest)

Purslane with Melon Salad with Prawns
3 handfuls purslane, about 5 oz trimmed weigh
1 pink-fleshed melon
creamy dressing
30 peeled cook shrimp
chopped fresh herbs (your choice)
Strip the leaves off the purslane and discard the stalks.  Arrange the leaves around the edge of 6 salad plates.  Cut the melon in half, discard the seeds and scoop out the flesh with a melon scoop.  Put a heap of melon flesh in the middle of the plate.  Pour some dressing over the purslane and melon.  Arrange the prawns on top of the salads and sprinkle with the chosen herbs.  (Fruits of the Forest)

Fairy Food Casserole
2 cups raw wild rice
handful wild oregano
2 Tbsp wild mint
1 Tbsp wild catni
1 cup wild purslane
6 wild onion
5 leaves garden basil
3 cloves garlic
1 cup wild mushrooms, chopped
2 tsp olive oil
1 Tbsp wild mustard seeds
3 Tbsp yellow dock seeds
handful of wild flowers
Boil rice until done and set aside.  Collect our wild herbs and mushrooms.  Chop herbs, purslane, wild onions, basil and garlic coarsely.  Mix with rice. Saute mushrooms with a little more garlic and add to rice.  Add olive oil to rice and mix well.  Place in casserole dish, shred goat cheese on top and bake for 30 minutes at 350F.  Garnish with yellow dock seeds, mustard seeds and wild flowers.  Serve on a bed of leafy greens.  Serves 10-12.  (An Herbal Feast)

References:
A Compendium of Herbal Magick, Paul Beyerl, Phoenix Publishing, 1998; ISBN: 0-919345-45-X
An Herbal Feast, Risa Mornis, Keats Publishing, 1998; ISBN: 0-87983-801-9
The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants, Andrew Chevallier, Dorling Kindersely, 1997; ISBN: 0-7894-1067-2
Fruits of the Forest, Sue Style, Pavilion Books, 1995; ISBN: 1-85793-385
The Illustrated Herb Encyclopedia, Kathi Keville, Mallard Press, 1991; ISBN: 0-7924-5307-7
Nanise’: A Navajo Herbal, Vernon O Mayes and Barbara Bayless Lacy, Navajo Community College Press, 1989; ISBN: 0-912586-62-1
Rainforest Remedies, Rosita Arvigo and Michael Balick, Lotus Press, 1993; ISBN: 0-914955-13-6
Wild Food, Roger Phillips, Little Brown, 1986; ISBN: 0-316-70611-6
The Wild Foods Cookbook, Cathy Johnson, Stephen Greene Press; 1989; ISBN: 0-8289-0712-9
The Wild Gourmet, Babette Brackett & Maryann Lash, Godine, 1975; ISBN: 0-87923-142-4
The Wild Plant Companioin, Kathryn G. March & Andrew L. March, Meridian Hill, 1986; ISBN: 0-940206-03-X

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Spinach

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Posted by admin | Posted in Spinach | Posted on 01-06-2016

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Spinach can help prevent macular degeneration.  Good thing I like it.  http://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/spinach-helps-protect-eyes-macular-degeneration

Spinacia oleracea
[spin-AH-see-ah   awl-lur-RAY-see-uh]

Family: Chenopodiaceae

Names: Ch’Ih Ken Ts’Ai, Epinard, Espinaca, Ispanak, Ispinakh, Po Leng Ts’Ai, Po Ssu Ts’Ao, Po Ts’Ai, Spinagh, Spinazie; Spenat (Swedish); Spinat (norwegian); Spinat (Danish); Pinaatti (Finnish); Spinat (German); Epinard (French)

Description: Well-known vegetable, with broad sharp-pointed leaves and spikes of tiny green flowers

Cultivation: Plants grow best and produce their heaviest crop of leaves on a nitrogen-rich soil. They dislike very heavy or very light soils. They also dislike acid soils, preferring a neutral to slightly alkaline soil. Plants require plenty of moisture in the growing season, dry summers causing the plants to quickly run to seed. Summer crops do best in light shade to encourage more leaf production before the plant goes to seed, winter crops require a warm dry sunny position. Young plants are hardy to about 16°F.  Most new cultivars are of the round seeded variety and these have been developed to be more resistant to bolting in hot weather, more cold tolerant, to produce more leaves and also to be lower in calcium oxalate which causes bitterness and also has negative nutritional effects upon the body.  Some modern varieties have been developed that are low in oxalic acid. Edible leaves can be obtained all year round from successional sowings. The summer varieties tend to run to seed fairly quickly, especially in hot dry summers and so you need to make successional sowings every few weeks if a constant supply is required. Winter varieties provide leaves for a longer period, though they soon run to seed when the weather warms up.  Spinach grows well with strawberries. It also grows well with cabbages, onions, peas and celery. A fast-growing plant, the summer crop can be interplanted between rows of slower growing plants such as Brussels sprouts. The spinach would have been harvested before the other crop needs the extra space. Spinach is a bad companion for grapes and hyssop. Sow seed in situ from March to June for a summer crop. Make successional sowings, perhaps once a month, to ensure a continuity of supply. The seed germinates within about 2 weeks and the first leaves can be harvested about 6 weeks later. Seed is sown in situ during August and September for a winter crop.

Properties: Carminative; Febrifuge; Hypoglycaemic; Laxative.

Constituents: The plant contains saponin, especially in the roots.  The leaves are rich in calcium and contain iron, iodine and chlorophyll, flavonoids, quantities of Vitamins C and K, folic acid and Provitamin A.

Medicinal Uses: Still used mainly for food.  The leaves are rich in minerals, particularly iron and calcium, and are recommended for anemic persons.  It also supplies vitamins A, C, and K and folic acid.  It is best grown organically, as chemical fertilizers tend to lower the vitamin content. A food for convalescence and for growing children.  In experiments it has been shown to have hypoglycemic properties. It has been used in the treatment of urinary calculi.  The leaves have been used in the treatment of febrile conditions, inflammation of the lungs and the bowels. The seeds are laxative and cooling. They have been used in the treatment of difficult breathing, inflammation of the liver and jaundice.  The folate in spinach can reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure by almost 33%.
Spinach protects the eyes’ macular pigment from age related macular degeneration.  It does this by using its own healthy yellow macular pigment as a protection from blue light.   This macular pigment is made up of three yellow carotenoids, specifically lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin.  Towards the middle of the macula, zeaxanthin is more concentrated, reaching 75 percent. Away from the middle, the dominant component is  lutein, with 65 percent or more of the total. Among all tissues, the macula contains the highest concentration of these carotenoids.  When our consumption of these important carotenoids runs low, the macular pigment shield of the macula thins. This can progressively happen with age, but it can also run low among those with low levels of these nutrients – lutein and zeaxanthin – in the diet.  Most blindness is a result of macular degeneration.  A thicker macular pigment density also can significantly improve our vision. It can help prevent photosensitivity for example. Thicker pigment can also help us view natural environments and see at night.  Our diet can significantly change the pigment.  Spinach consumption increases macular pigment.  Researchers in Japan, Germany and Britain have confirmed this.  Maybe  Popeye WAS right.

Culinary Uses: Tender young leaves can be added to salads, older leaves are used as greens or added to soups etc. The leaves contain oxalic acid (6 – 8% in young leaves, 23 – 27% in the cotyledons).  The seeds can be sprouted and added to salads.  Chlorophyll extracted from the leaves is used as an edible green dye.

Other Uses: A yellow dye is obtained from the leaves.

RECIPES:
Sunflower Spinach

2 lbs fresh spinach
1 medium onion, finely chopped
3 Tbsp oil

½ inch fresh ginger, peeled and grated
½ tsp chili powder
2 Tbsp water
3 tbsp seedless sultanas (golden raisins)
2 oz sunflower seeds
Wash the spinach and remove any tough stalks or discolored leaves.  Chop coarsely.  Fry the onion in 2 Tbsp of the oil until lightly colored.  Add the spices and fry for a further minute, stirring well. Add the spinach, water and sultanas and stir until well coated, then turn down the heat, cover and simmer for 5 minutes, stirring occasionally, by which time the liquid will have been absorbed and the spinach cooked. Fry the sunflower seeds in Spi remaining oil until golden, stir into the spinach and serve immediately.  (The Hot and Spicy Cookbook)

Sorrel Soup with Potherb Dumplings
For the soup:
2 Tbsp olive oil
1 large onion, finely diced
2 leeks, trimmed, split, rinsed, and finely diced
¼ lb sorrel (about 3 cups)
2 quarts water or vegetable stock
lb spinach (about 4 cups packed)
1 Tbsp lemon juice
2 tsp lemon zest (from 1-2 lemons)
salt and freshly ground black pepper
Heat the olive oil in a 4- to 6-quart Dutch oven over medium heat.  Add the onion and leeks and cook, stirring occasionally, until softened and translucent but not colored, about 12 minutes.  Stir in the sorrel and cook until it begins to break apart, about 5 minutes. Add the water, spinach, lemon juice, and zest and cook until the spinach is wilted, about 3 minutes.  Season with salt and pepper.  Process with a handheld blender or in a food processor or blender until just pureed

Dumplings:
1 ½ cups chives (cut in 1-inch lengths)
2/3 cup tarragon leaves
6 cups parsley leaves
2 cups ricotta cheese
2 large eggs
2 large egg whites
1/3 cup grated Parmesan cheese, plus extra for garnish, if desired
pinch of grated nutmeg
½ tsp kosher salt
¼ tsp freshly ground pepper
½ cup flour
1 ½ cups matzo meal
Put the chives, tarragon, and parsley in a food processor and mince. Add the ricotta, eggs, egg whites, Parmesan, nutmeg, salt, pepper, flour, and matzo meal and process until well mixed.  Shape into 1- by ½-inch ovals with your hands. Place on a sheet pan and refrigerate about ½ hour.  Bring a 1-quart saucepan of salted water to just under a boil and cook the dumplings in batches until cooked through, about 5 minutes each batch.  Divide them among 6-8 soup bowls and ladle the sorrel soup over the top.  The dumplings are best eaten immediately.  Sprinkle with grated Parmesan, if desired.  (The Greenmarket Cookbook)

Mushroom, Spinach & Walnut Paté
¼ cup olive oil
1 chopped onion
1 lb chopped mushrooms
1 minced garlic clove
3 Tbsp sherry
¾ tsp crushed rosemary
2 Cups spinach
1 1/3 cup walnuts
1 cup cottage cheese
2 eggs
1/3 cup parsley
¼ tsp grated nutmeg
Heat oil and sauté the onion, mushrooms and garlic until soft. Add sherry and rosemary and simmer until liquid is absorbed.  Put mixture in processor and process with chopped spinach and walnuts until chunky.  Add cheese, eggs, chopped parsley and nutmeg. Put into an oiled loaf pan; cover with foil and cook in a pan of water at 375F for 1 ½ hours. Let cool for 1/3 hour, then weight down with a plate for 1 hour. Room from pan and slice; cool. Serve at room temperature. Serve on crackers.  (Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Mine)

Quinoa with Lemon, Greens and Spring Herbs
1 cup quinoa
2 cups vegetable broth or water
1 tablespoon coriander
1 tablespoon olive oil
3 cloves garlic, minced
1 pinch red pepper flakes
3 to 4 cups fresh spinach or kale (1 bunch), chopped
2 lemons
½ cup fresh mint leaves or 1/3 cup fresh dill, chopped
Sea salt to taste
Pour quinoa into a strainer and rinse. In a medium pot, bring broth to boil. Stir in quinoa. Cover and reduce heat to low, simmering about 15 minutes, until quinoa expands and absorbs all liquid. Fluff with a fork. Stir in coriander. In a large skillet, heat oil over medium heat. Add garlic and sauté, stirring, until it softens, about 5 minutes. Add pepper flakes and chopped greens, stirring until greens are just wilted, 3 to 5 minutes. Reduce heat to medium. Add quinoa and stir gently to combine. Grate in the zest of both lemons, squeeze in juice and add chopped mint. Stir in sea salt to taste. May be served hot or at room temperature. Makes 4 to 6 servings. Per serving: 218 calories (25 percent from fat), 7 g fat (1 g saturated, 3.5 g monounsaturated), 0 cholesterol, 8.8 g protein, 36.4 g carbohydrates, 6.4 g fiber, 629 mg sodium.

References:
Excellent article: http://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/spinach-helps-protect-eyes-macular-degeneration 
The Greenmarket Cookbook, Joel Patraker & Joan Schwartz, Viking, 2000; ISBN: 0-670-88134-1
The Hot and Spicy Cookbook, Sophie Hale, Quintet Publishing, 1987; ISBN: 1-55521-060-0
Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Mine, Susan A. McCreary, 11597 Strawberry Patchworks Book, 1991; ISBN: 0-9608428-5-3
Southern Herb Growing, Gwen Barclay, Madalene Hill, Shearer Publishing, 1987; ISBN: 0-940672-41-3

HERBALPEDIA™ is brought to you by Herbalpedia LLC, PO Box 245, Silver Spring, PA 17575-0245; 717-393-3295; FAX: 717-393-9261; email: herbworld17@gmail.com    URL: http://www.herbalpedia.com Editor: Maureen Rogers.  Copyright 2016.  All rights reserved.   Material herein is derived from journals, textbooks, etc. THGMN cannot be held responsible for the validity of the information contained in any reference noted herein, for the misuse of information or any adverse effects by use of any stated material presented.

 

 

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Horseradish

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Posted by admin | Posted in Horseradish | Posted on 30-05-2016

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Horseradish…..aahhhhhh……the aroma…..and the taste

Horseradish isn’t just a condiment    http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/30/horseradish-benefits.aspx?utm_source=dnl&utm_medium=email&utm_content=art2&utm_campaign=20160530Z1&et_cid=DM107077&et_rid=1506832290

 Armoracia rusticana (previously Cochlearia armoracea and Armoracia lapathifolia)

Family: Cruciferae

Names: Great Raifort, Horse Plant, Mountain Radish, Red cole; Cranson de Bretagne, Cran, moutarde des Allemands, raifort (French); Kren, Meerrettish, Meerrettich (German); rafano, barbaforte, cren (Italian); taramago, rábano picante, rábano rusticano, cochlearia (Spanish); Peberrod (Danish); Mierikswortel, Mierik, Boereradijs, Meredik, Kreno (Dutch); Aed-mädaroigas, Mädaroigas (Estonian); Piparjuuri (Finnish); Meacan-each (Gaelic); Torma, Közönséges torma (Hungarian); Piparrót (Icelandic); Pepperrot (Norwegian); Chrzan pospolity, Chrzan zwyczajny (Polish); Raiz-forte, armorácio (Portuguese); Hrean (Romanian); Khrjen, khren (Russian); Mronge (Swahili); Pepparrot, skörbjuggsört (Swedish); lagen (Chinese); seijô wasabi (Japanese); fujl har (Arabic)

Description: Native of the muddy swamplands of southern Europe and western Asia and was introduced to the rest of Europe in the 13th century.  Brought over to North America and has since become naturalized.  A perennial hardy  to –20F.  Strap-like leaves 1-2 feet long with 2- to 3-foot spikes of tiny white edible flowers. It is a cylindrical white root with a yellowish brown skin, on average about 1 ft long and ¾ in diameter.  It is slightly gnarled or ringed, often with small fibrous roots growing from the main root, especially in semi-wild horseradish.  In cultivated varieties the root is unbranched and fairly straight.  The best fresh roots are thick and well grown; thin and insubstantial roots, apart from being hard to use, are inferior in pungency.  Growth can be invasive.  It is a member of the same family as mustard and cress and is rich in sulfur.  When intact, the root has little aroma.  On being scraped or broken, it exudes a penetrating smell, similar to watercress, and is apt to irritate the nostrils, making the eyes water even more than onions do.

Cultivation: Full sun.  Keep evenly moist and fertilize regularly.  Start from transplants or division. Space 10-15 inches in loose rich soil at least 18 inches deep with a pH of 6-8.    Grow alone in a 14- to 16- inch container.  Overwinter outdoors in a protected location.  Use young leaves or flowers when available.  Harvest roots in late fall when 1-2 years old.  Scrub and dry and can be packed in dry sand set in a cool, dark place.  The ideal method for home use is to dig up a root when needed, storing it for no more than a week in the refrigerator.  Or you can dig up a large number of roots at once and freeze them or grate them and cover with vinegar.  To freeze, scrub, then lightly scrape away the outer skin, cut in half, and remove the center core.  Wrap thoroughly and freeze, using within 6 months.  To preserve, prepare as for freezing, but then mince in a food processor.  Pack the grated horseradish tightly in 1 cup jars, then cover with vinegar.  Cap the jars and refrigerate for up to 6 months.

Horseradish aids fruit trees in the orchard and helps prevent brown rot on apple trees.  In the vegetable garden, if kept restricted to the corners of the potato bed, it will assist potatoes to be more healthy and resistant to disease.  Every two years it is advisable to pull the whole plant out, keeping the long main roots for replanting.  Smooth-leaved cultivars such as “Sass’ have produced an average of 4.81 tons of fresh root per acre.

History: The ancient name of Britain was Armorica, from which the generic name of this species is derived; the specific name underlines that the plant was grown mainly in the country.  Another thought is that the name is an apparent corruption of the German “meerrettich” (sea radish).  “Meer” is derived from mahre (an old mare), referring to the tough roots.  Horseradish has been known and valued by various groups of the peoples through the ages.  It is thought to have originated in Eastern Europe and has become part of the diet of many people. It was a favorite condiment with vinegar among the country folk in rustic Germany. Its reputation spread to England and France, where it became known as moutarde des Allemands. The French still eat horseradish, slicing the whole root at the table and salting it.  It is one of the herbs used by the Jewish people at the time of the Passover.  During the Middle Ages it was known as ‘scurvy grass’.

The plant has been known in cultivation for about two thousand years.  Henry J. Heinz is believed to have been the first to develop a commercial horseradish product in 1944.

Chemical Constituents: Contains the glucoside sinigrin and the enzyme myrosin, which react with water to form a volatile oil containing allyl-isothiocyanate and two other isothiocyanates (phenylethyl isothiocyanate).  The root also contains a bitter resin, sugar, starch, gum, albumin and acetates.  Also present in raw horseradish are protein 3%, fat 0.3%, carbohydrate 20%, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, other sulphurous compounds and vitamins B C.  There are 87 calories per 100g.

Properties:  stimulant, diuretic, diaphoretic, rubefacient, antibiotic, carminative, expectorant, laxative (mild), and antiseptic.

Medicinal Uses:  Horseradish has long been known as a stimulant for many parts of the circulatory system, while having antiseptic qualities too.  When taken with rich food it assists digestion and when a little horseradish is taken regularly it will build up resistance to coughs and colds.  In dropsy, it benefits the system by correcting imbalances in the digestive organs.  In a more concentrated form, it is able to reduce catarrhal and bronchial complaints.  Horseradish taken inwardly also relieves sinus pain and is said to help reduce blood pressure.  As a poultice it’s used for rheumatism, chest complaints and circulation problems.  Infused in wine it becomes a general stimulant and causes perspiration.  It is believed to be a good vermifuge for children.  It is richer in vitamin C than orange or lemon.  The volatiles in horseradish have been shown to be antimicrobial against some organisms.  Horseradish derivatives may be useful to replace current microbial treatments that remove toxic pollutants from water and make them insoluble.  Syrup of horseradish is made by steeping a tablespoon of grated horseradish root in a cup of boiling water and covering it for two hours.  The horseradish is then strained out and either sugar or honey is added.  Heat until a thick syrupy consistency is achieved.  Bottle for use.  A peroxidase enzyme extracted from the root has novel commercial applications as an oxidizer in chemical tests to evaluate blood glucose, and a molecular probe in studies on rheumatoid arthritis.

Energetics: spicy, hot

Meridians/Organs affected: lungs, colon kidney

Typical Daily usage: Fresh root: 1-2 tablespoon; dried root 1.5-3 gm; extract 2gm dried root, 10 ml alcohol, 10 ml water

For rheumatism take 3-4 Tbsp of horseradish daily with apple cider vinegar and honey

For colitis caused by putrefaction, take 15-20 drops of horseradish juice between meals

To decongest the sinuses chew one teaspoon of grated horseradish root that has been mixed with a Tbsp of apple cider vinegar until all the flavor is gone.

For asthma: add several tablespoons of freshly grated horseradish to 1 cup milk.  Simmer for 10 minutes and strain.  Drink as necessary to obtain relief

Arthritis liniment: Put 1 cup each of melted paraffin and grated horseradish in the blender.  Blend until liquefied. Rub the affected joint with the mixture and wrap loosely with a flannel cloth.  Leave on overnight. Rinse off the next morning.  Repeat until swelling is gone.  The horseradish liniment should be stored in a tightly closed container at room temperature.

Horseradish-Honey-Garlic Tea

1 1-inch piece fresh horseradish, peeled and grated (1/4  cup)
¼ cup honey
2 garlic cloves, smashed, peeled and coarsely chopped
juice of 1 lemon
Put 4 cups water on to boil.  In a blender, combine the horseradish, honey, garlic and 2 Tbsp water. Process until smooth, stopping once or twice to scrape down the sides of the blender.  Scrape the puree into a bowl, and pour in the boiling water.  Let it steep for 5 minutes.  Strain into a teapot, and stir in the lemon juice.  Drink hot, inhaling the steam deeply.  (Tonics)

Toxicity: Use medicinally with care, as the roots may cause internal inflammation, affect the thyroid gland or, used externally, produce blisters.  Also contraindication with inflammation of the gastric mucosa and with kidney disorders; not to be used by children under 4 years old.  These concerns are based upon therapeutic use and may not be relevant to its consumption as a spice.

Aromatherapy:

EXTRACTION: Essential oil by water and steam distillation from broken roots that have been soaked in water

CHARACTERISTICS: A colorless or pale yellow mobile liquid with a sharp, potent odor and having a tear-producing effect

USES: used mainly in minute amounts in seasonings, ready-made salads, condiments and canned products

Cosmetic Uses: Some herbalists use horseradish root in conjunction with other herbs to relieve eczema.  It is also used with yoghurt or milk to be dabbed on the skin to fade freckles.  For an effective skin refresher, infuse some of the sliced root in milk and pat the milk on the skin.

HORSERADISH LEMON LOTION
Steep 1 tsp grated horseradish in juice of 2 lemons and allow it to infuse for 48 hours, in a warm room.  Bottle, and apply to the freckles, using a cotton ball.

CLEANSING LOTIO
Lift and clean the roots, then slice them into a saucepan and to every 1 lb add .5 litre of milk and simmer for an hour over a low flame.  Strain and bottle and apply as a lotion to the face and forehead.  Keep any surplus in the refrigerator.  Clears the skin of blackheads and pimples.

Ritual Uses:  Gender: Masculine.  Planet: Mars.  Element: Fire.  Horseradish should be sprinkled around the house, in corners, on the steps outside, and on doorsills.  This will make all evil powers clear out, and will diffuse any spells that may have been set against you.

Grate or grind dried horseradish root.  Sprinkle over thresholds, corners, and any vulnerable areas to expel evil.   Hex Reversal: Grate or grind dried horseradish root.  Sprinkle it over your thresholds, corners, windows, and any areas perceived as vulnerable, to reverse any malevolent magic cast against a building’s inhabitants.

Culinary Uses:  Horseradish has an acrid quality reminiscent of mustard and counterpoints fresh and smoked fish, tongue, sausages, chicken, eggs, asparagus, avocado, beets, carrots, potatoes, turnips and coleslaw.  Freshly grated root is mixed with vinegar, mayonnaise, cream sour cream, butter or yogurt to serve with foods.  It has a particular affinity with apple, beetroot and dill. Cooking destroys the pungency, as does sitting around in a refrigerator after grating unless covered with vinegar.  The young tender leaves can be added to mixed green salads, and the root is a rich source of vitamin C and has antibiotic qualities.  Dried horseradish root in the form of small grains or flakes is now available.  These swell and reconstitute in liquid, giving a good texture.  Powdered horseradish root is not recommended as it is weaker in flavor and has no texture.

 To make a basic horseradish cream sauce: combine 1 cup sour cream with ¼ cup fresh or preserved grated horseradish and season with salt and pepper. Adding 2 Tbsp minced fresh chives, 1 Tbsp Dijon mustard and ½ cup whipped cream (or low-fat plain yogurt).

RECIPES:

Bacon Horseradish Dip
3 8-oz packages cream cheese at room
temperature and cut into small pieces
12 oz cheddar cheese, shredded
3 cloves garlic, finely chopped
1 scallion (spring onion), green and white parts, chopped
1 cup half-and-half or heavy cream
3 Tbs prepared horseradish
1 Tbs Worcestershire sauce
Salt and freshly ground pepper to taste
12 slices bacon fried crisp, drained, and crumbled
Combine all the ingredients except the bacon in a slow cooker or oven-proof covered baking dish.  Cook covered on high heat or in a preheated 300F oven for 2 to 2½  hours, stirring once halfway through cooking.  Stir in the bacon and serve with thinly sliced French bread, corn chips, pita wedges, or crackers.  Serves 16 to 20.

Fresh Apple and Horseradish Sauce
1 sharp green dessert apple
1 tsp lemon juice
¼ pint chilled cream, whipping or heavy
1 ½ Tbsp freshly grated horseradish
Quarter and core the apple and grate it, without peeling it.  Sprinkle it with lemon juice to prevent discoloration.  Whip the cram to soft peaks and slightly stir in the grated apple and horseradish. Serve immediately.  (The Hot and Spicy Cookbook)

Hot Beetroot with Horseradish Cream
1 lb small beetroot
1 tsp vinegar
2 Tbsp butter, melted
salt and freshly milled pepper
1-2 Tbsp freshly grated horseradish
2/3 cup soured cream
¼ tsp finely grated zest of lemon
squeeze of lemon juice
1 Tbsp finely chopped chives or parsley
Wash the beetroot under cold running water, taking care not to scratch the skin; leave the roots intact. Cover with cold water, add the vinegar and bring to the boil.  Place the lid on the pan and cook gently on the top of the stove, or in an over preheated to 350F for 30-40 minutes or until tender.  Remove from the heat, drain and peel. Transfer the beetroot to a hot serving dish and pour over the melted butter.  Season with salt and pepper and keep hot.  Mix the horseradish with the soured cream. Stir in the zest of lemon and add lemon juice to taste.  Spoon over the beetroot and sprinkle the chives or parsley on top.  (The Gourmet Garden)

Horseradish and Sesame Dip
1 cup ricotta cheese
½ cup toasted sesame seeds, ground
1Tbsp finely chopped parsley
1 Tbsp finely chopped chives
1 tsp finely chopped coriander leaves
1 Tbsp finely chopped onion
1 tsp lemon juice
1 Tbsp brewer’s yeast flakes
1 Tbsp plain yoghurt
finely grated horseradish, to taste
Mix all the ingredients together, adjusting quantities to taste. Serve with crackers or vegetable sticks.   (Complete Book of Herbs)

Shrimp with Lovage and Horseradish Mustard Sauce
10 small sprigs fresh parsley
2 Tbsp fresh lovage leaves
1 scallion, cut into pieces
½ tsp fresh tarragon leaves
1 Tbsp tarragon vinegar
2 Tbsp olive oil
1 Tbsp French-style mustard
1 heaping tsp horseradish
1/8 tsp lemon pepper or freshly ground black pepper
¾ lb shrimp, cooked, peeled and deveined
lettuce leaves
cucumber slices
Combine all the ingredients in a blender except shrimp, lettuce, and cucumbers, and process until well blended.  There should be about ½ cup of sauce.  Toss sauce with shrimp and put into a covered nonmetallic bowl to marinate overnight.  When ready to serve, arrange lettuce leaves and cucumber slices attractively on a serving platter, and spoon shrimp into center.  (The Herb & Spice Cookbook—A Seasoning Celebration)

Horseradish Jelly
¼ cup prepared horseradish
¼ cup vinegar
3 ½ cup sugar
3 oz pectin
Make an herbal infusion by mixing chopped herbs with ¼ cup sugar (4 Tbsp dried herbs may be used for 1 cup fresh). Place in a heavy 4 quart pan.  Stir in the required liquids and bring to a boil.  Simmer 8 minutes and bring to a rolling boil; stir in pectin; boil ½ minute, stirring constantly.  Add remaining sugar and bring to a full boil that cannot be stirred down. Boil 1 minute.  Remove from heat and skim off foam.  Pour through a sieve into prepared jars and seal

Apple Pie With Horseradish and Cheddar Cheese
Makes one 9 in (23 cm) pie
5 medium-large tart apples
2 ½ Tbsp (32 ml) lemon juice
1/3 cup (75 ml) white sugar
1/3 cup (75 ml) brown sugar
40 ml (3 tbsp) unbleached flour
¼ tsp (1 ml) freshly grated nutmeg
¼ cup (50 ml) freshly grated horseradish
2 9-inch (23-cm) pie crusts
Sharp cheddar cheese, optional
Preheat oven to 425º F (220° C). Peel the apples, core, and slice them into a bowl. As you slice them, add the lemon juice, a little at a time, to keep the apples from darkening. Add the sugars, flour, nutmeg, and horseradish, and toss well.  Roll the pie crusts out on a floured surface. Place the bottom crust in the pie plate, and evenly spread the apple mixture in it. Cover with the top crust, and crimp the edges decoratively. Prick the top crust with a fork in several places.  Bake in the centre of the oven for 10 minutes. Reduce heat to 350º C (180° F), and bake for about 45 minutes longer, or until the top is golden brown. Remove to a rack to cool. The pie is best served warm, not hot, or at room temperature. Serve with thin slices of cheddar cheese if desired.

References:
AHPA Botanical Safety Handbook, CRC Press, 1997; ISBN: 0-8493-1675-8
The Complete Book of Herbs, Andi Clevely and Katherine Richmond, Smithmark, 1995; ISBN: 0-8317-1164-
Complete Book of Herbs, Nerys Purchon, Blitz Editions, 1995; ISBN: 1-85605-308-3
Cooking with Spices, Carolyn Heal & Michael Allsop, David & Charles, 1983; ISBN: 0-7153-8369-8
Cosmetics from the Earth, Roy Genders, Alfred van der marck, 1985; ISBN: 0-912383-20-8
Creative Cooking with Spices, Jane Newcomb, Chartwell Books, 1985; ISBN: 1-55521-016-3
The Element Encyclopedia of 5000 Spells, Judika Illes, Harper Collins, 2004
The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices, Hermes House, 1997; ISBN: 1-901289-06-0
Encyclopedia of Magical Herbs, Scott Cunningham, Llewellwyn Publications, 1982, ISBN: 978-0 87542-122-3
Food From the Countryside, Avril Rodway, Grange Books, 1988; ISBN: 1-85627-2761
The Gourmet Garden, Geraldene  Holt, Bulfinch, 1990; ISBN: 0-8212-1815-8
The Herb & Spice Cookbook—A Seasoning Celebration, Sheryl & Mel London, Rodale, 1986; ISBN: 0-87857-641-X
Herbal Renaissance, Steven Foster, Gibbs Smith; ISBN: 0-87905-523-5
Herbs for the Home and Garden, Shirley Reid, Cornstalk Publishing, 1991; ISBN: 0-207-15105-9
Herbs, Health & cookery, Claire Loewenfeld & Philippa Back, Gramercy,  1982; ISBN: 0-517-105659
The Hot and Spicy Cookbook, Sophie Hale, Chartwell Books, 1987; ISBN: 1-55521-060-0
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils, Julia Lawless, Element Books, 1995; ISBN:1-56619-990-5
Jude’s Herbal Home Remedies, Jude C. Williams, Llewellyn, 1992; ISBN: 0-87542-869-X
More Recipes from a Kitchen Garden, Renee Shepherd & Fran Raboff, 10 Speed Press, 1995; ISBN: 0-89815-730-7
Planetary Herbology, Michael Tierra, Lotus Press; 1988; ISBN: 0941-524272
Recipes from an American Herb Garden, Maggie Oster, Macmillan, 1993; ISBN: 0-02-594025-2
Savory Favorites & Sage Advice ,  PO Box 77, Salem, VA 24153; 1991
Simon & Schuster’s Guide to Herbs and Spices, edited by Stanley Schuler, Fireside; 1990; ISBN: 0-671-73489-X
Tonics, Robert A. Barnett, Harper Collins, 1997; ISBN: 0-06-095111-7
What Herb is That?, John & Rosemary Hemphill, Stackpole Books, 1997; ISBN: 0-8117-1634-1
Wild Food, Roger Phillips, Little Brown, 1986; ISBN: 0-316-70611-6

Resources:
Companion Plants, 7247 No Coolville Ridge Rd., Athens, OH 45701; 740-592-4643; www.companionplants.com  plants

HERBALPEDIA™ is brought to you by The Herb Growing & Marketing Network, PO Box 245, Silver Spring, PA 17575-0245; 717-393-3295; FAX: 717-393-9261; email: herbworld@aol.com    URL: http://www.herbalpedia.com Editor: Maureen Rogers.  Copyright 2014.  All rights reserved.   Material herein is derived from journals, textbooks, etc. THGMN cannot be held responsible for the validity of the information contained in any reference noted herein, for the misuse of information or any adverse effects by use of any stated material presented.

 

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Aloe

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Posted by admin | Posted in Aloe | Posted on 10-02-2016

Aloe Vera is not just for burns.  It’s for your heart too.

The Benefits Of Aloe Vera For Your Heart

Aloe barbadensisis not just for burns. 
[AL-oh bar-buh-DEN-s]
(syn Aloe vera)

Family: Asphodelaceae

Names: moka aloe, turkey, aloe, burn plant, medicine plant, Saqal, Zabila, cape, Aloe Zanzibar, Barbados Aloe, lu hui, hsiang dan (Chinese); sink-am-bible (Creole)

Description: a squat succulent with a height of 1-5 feet and a width of 1-3 feet. The flowers are orange or red, grouped on top of tall, erect stems, hanging down like tiers of small 1-inch cigars. The leaves are fleshy, very succulent blades rising 1-2 feet from a rosette center. They are pale green and mottled with paler spots, prickly along the edges. It blooms midsummer when planted in the ground. Aloe takes 2-3 years to flower.

Cultivation: A perennial to Zone 3. Germination can sometimes take months. Space 3 feet apart with a soil temperature of 60F. Prefers sandy loam that is very well drained and a pH of 5-7.5. Infrequent, deep watering is needed so the roots don’t get soggy. Potted plants need filtered sun or complete shade. They turn brown when fully exposed to the sun. Easiest to propagate by rooting young, outer suckers.

History: An important herb for over 3,000 years, the Egyptian Papyrus ebers and temple walls describe the use of aloe vera to treat burns, skin ulcers and parasites. Aloe is thought to be the secret ingredient Cleopatra added to her beauty cream. The name goes back to the Arabic alloeh or the Hebrew halal, meaning “bitter, shiny substance” describing the medicinal inner leaf of the plant. The Arabs first record using this bitter substance as a laxative in the 6th century B.C. In the 1st century A.D., the herbalist Dioscorides recommended aloe vera for digestive tract, kidney, mouth and skin diseases. The east African island of Socotra was the only place aloe was cultivated in the 4th century B.C., so Aristotle reportedly asked Alexander the Great to conquer the island to assure a constant supply. Socotra remained the only source of aloe vera until 1673 when English druggists began importing it from Barbados, giving it the species name barbadensis.  Cosmetically, aloe vera gel was valued by Cleopatra, who massaged it into her skin. Aloe was also reputed to be the basis of the Empress Josephine’s complexion milk.  The active herb is derived from the condensed juice of the fresh leaves and comes in irregularly shaped chunks about 2 centimeters thick, with a waxy texture and varying in color from orange-brown to black. It is highly aromatic and has a sharply bitter taste, hence the Chinese name meaning “elephant’s gall” (hsiang dan).

Constituents: Glycoside (anthraquinone, also called aloe-emodin and aloin), polysaccharides, acemannan (a powerful immunostimulant), saponins, essential oil, steroids, enzymes, antibiotic, minerals, cinnamic and salicylic acids. The fresh leaf contains about 96% water

Properties: purgative, promotes bile flow, heals wounds, tonic, demulcent, antifungal, stops bleeding, sedative, expels worms.

Energetics: leaves: bitter, hot, moist; gel: salty, bitter, cool, moist

Meridians/Organs affected: liver, stomach, large intestine

Medicinal Uses: Commercial aloe juice is made from the inner leaf, which is blended and strained, with a preservative added. To make aloe “gel”, the juice is thickened with seaweed to mimic the leaf’s original thick consistency. The crystalline part called aloin, a brownish gel found alongside the leaf blade, is powdered and used in some commercial laxatives. It is so strong that it must be combined with other herbs to prevent intestinal griping. The commercial juice and gel remove this part of the leaf, so both the juice and the gel are soothing to digestive tract irritations, such as peptic ulcers and colitis. In one study, the stomach lesions of twelve peptic ulcer patients were all completely healed. A popular ingredient in commercial drug store products, aloe is commonly used to soothe burns, including sunburn and radiation burns. Aloe is also applied to wounds, eczema, ringworm and poison oak and poison ivy rashes. There is evidence that it effectively regenerated injured nerves. One study reports aloe to be successful in healing leg ulcerations and severe acne and even finds that it promotes hair growth. When 56 frostbit patients were treated with a product containing 70% aloe, only 7% developed infections, compared to 98 frostbitten patients not treated with aloe, 33 of whom eventually needed amputation. It has also proved helpful in treating periodontosis. One study injected aloe extracts into the diseased areas of 128 patients with varying degrees of gum disease. Within a week, the development of symptoms stopped, pain decreased and marked improvement followed in all patients.
Aloe is widely used in folk medicine, both as a liniment and as a drink, to reduce the swelling and pain of arthritis and rheumatism. Diabetics in the Arabian peninsula eat aloe to control their blood sugar levels. A clinical study did find that when volunteers who were not insulin dependent took half a teaspoon daily for 4-14 weeks, their fasting blood sugar levels were reduced by half, with no change in body weight.
Another preparation from aloe, carrisyn, is a polysaccharide. It has been claimed that carrisyn directly kills various types of viruses, including herpes and measles, and possibly HIV. However, research is still in the preliminary stages.
To remove deeply embedded thorns, stones or fish scales, slice a piece of aloe vera leaf in half; apply over area and secure with a band or cloth. Leave this dressing on and change once daily—this will draw out the object in 3-5 days.

Remedies:
Gel: Apply the split leaf directly to burns, wounds, dry skin, fungal infections, and insect bites. Take up to 2 tsp in a glass of water or fruit juice, three times a day, as a tonic
Ointment: Split several leaves to collect a large quantity of gel, and boil it down to a thick paste. Store in clean jars in a cool place and use like the fresh leaves
Tonic Wine: Fermented aloe gel with honey and spices is known as kumaryasava in India and is used as a tonic for anemia, poor digestive function and liver disorders
Inhalation: Use the gel in a steam inhalant for bronchial congestion
Tincture of leaves: Use 1-3 ml per dose as an appetite stimulant or for constipation. The taste is unpleasant
Powder: Use 100-500 mg per dose or in capsules as a purgative for stubborn constipation and to stimulate bile flow.
Bunion Balsam: ¼ tsp aloe powder, 5/12 tsp myrrh powder, 4 oz vitamin E oil. Mix well in a bottle, let stand for a few days occasionally shaking the mixture, then strain off the clear liquid, discarding the sediment. Apply to bunions with a brush morning and night.

TCM: Using A. Barbadensis
Nature: bitter, cold
Affinity: liver, stomach, large intestine
Indications-Internal: stomachic, refrigerant; antiseptic; emmenagogue; sedative to liver, Chronic constipation; dizziness, headache and delirium due to live inflammations; intestinal parasites, gastritis, ulcers, indigestion, abdominal pains and heartburn; high or low blood pressure. Does not lose effect with prolonged use, so is good for chronic cases of constipation.
Indications-External: premature balding; scrapes, burns, sunburns, skin blemishes, and frostbite; athlete’s foot; insect bites; acne; hemorrhoids.
Contraindications: children with empty-cold constitutions (very pale, frail, prone to respiratory disorders) should not use aloe; adults should not exceed the daily dosages suggested above

Veterinary Use: Topical application of aloe gel will usually bring immediate cooling relief to fleabites, poison ivy and sunburns. It is also excellent for reducing the itch and tightening of postsurgical incisions. Applied after sutures are removed, the gel reduces much of the irritation that so often leads to persistent chewing or scratching and may result in inflammation and infection. Apply enough juice to lightly cover the affected area and allow it to dry. Apply once or twice per day until the healing process is progressing well. Scientists have recently found that acemannan acts as a strong immunostimulant in animals, particularly in cats. It has been found to be especially effective in the treatment of fibrosarcoma and feline leukemia virus. In a recent study, 44 cats with confirmed FeLV were intravenously injected with 2 milligrams per kilogram of acemannan weekly for six weeks and reexamined six weeks after the treatment was terminated. At the end of the 12 week study, 71 percent of the cats were alive and in good health. Acemannan has also been shown to be effective against cancerous tumors in rodents and dogs.

Flower Essence: For overuse or misuse of fiery, creative forces; “burned-out” feeling. Aloe Vera helps the soul and body aspect to come into greater harmony, by bringing the nourishment which comes from the water polarity of life—the flowing qualities of renewal and rejuvenation. When the soul learns to balance the fiery forces of the will with the fountain of feeling from the heart, a tremendous outpouring of positive creativity and spirituality can be realized.

Cosmetic Uses: Aloe is a popular base for many cosmetics. It is a soothing emollient for the skin that works wonders for complexion care, soothes sunburn and also prevents scarring. The aloin it contains is a sunscreen that blocks 20-30% of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. Aloe’s natural pH is about 4.3, ideally suited for skin, which is between pH 4 and 6.

Sunny Day Cream
1/8 cup lanolin
¼ cup almond oil
¼ cup coconut oil
¼ cup aloe vera gel
½ cup chamomile tea
¼ cup dried calendula petals
10-15 drops lavender essential oil
In the top of a double boiler or in a small saucepan over very low heat, melt the lanolin and almond oil together. Beat in the coconut oil with a wire whisk, then add the aloe vera gel and chamomile infusion, beating until the mixture is cool and creamy. Stir in the calendula petals and the lavender oil. Store cream in clean airtight jars in a cool, dark pantry or refrigerator for up to 6 months. (Herb Companion, May 2004)

Fungus Fighting Lotion
1 cup aloe vera gel
½ oz bloodroot tincture
1 tsp borax
½ tsp clove oil
½ tsp tea tree oil
Pour all ingredients into a blender. Blend for a few minutes, then pour into amber dropper bottles. Stored in a cool dark place, the lotion will last for up to one year. Shake the lotion well before using and apply two to three times daily. (Herbs for Health June 2004)

Toxicity: Excessive use of aloe (containing aloin) or any strong laxative, encourages hemorrhoids. This part of the plant should not be taken internally during pregnancy, since it can stimulate contractions, or while nursing, since it passes through breast milk

Ritual Uses: Gender: Feminine. Planet: Moon. Element: Water. Powers: Protection, Luck. The aloe is protective. It guards against evil influences and prevents household accidents. In Mexico, large wreaths made of whole garlic bulbs strung on wire are festooned with poictures of saints, packets of magical herbs, lodestones, rock salt, pine nuts as well as clumps of freshly cut aloe. These are hung up in the home for protection, luck and money. Aloe is sacred among many of the followers of Mohammed, particularly those living in Egypt. Pilgrims who visit Mohammed’s shrine hang the aloe above the doorway. In that culture it is also believed that the aloe provides protection to one’s home and the practice has spread to other religions in Egypt as well. The aloe is sometimes planted upon a burial site, believed to promote a peaceful existence until the deceased is reborn. Roman women believed that the plant was sacred to the goddess Venus, who bestowed love and beauty to hose who gave her honor. Among some tribes living along the Congo River in Africa, the juice of the aloe is ritually gathered and is integrated into their hunting rituals. The practical aspect is that, when the hunter’s body is coated with the juice of the aloe, he can move among his prey without his scent giving him away. Based upon lore and history, it would hold that growing an aloe would bring increased protection for your home. Modern lore has suggested that the aloe increases one’s likelihood of finding success in the world. It also purports that aloe may help those afflicted with feelings of loneliness.

References:
A Compendium of Herbal Magick, Paul Beyerl, Phoenix Publishing, 1998; ISBN: 0-919345-45-x
The Complete Medicinal Herbal , Penelope Ody, Dorling Kindersley, 1993; ISBN: 1-56458-187-X
Encyclopedia of Magical Herbs, Scott Cunningham, Llewellwyn Publications, 1982, ISBN: 978-0 87542-122-3
Flower Essence Repertory, Patricia Kaminski and Richard Katz, Flower Essence Society, 1996; ISBN: 0-9631306-1-7
A Handbook of Chinese Healing Herbs, Daniel Reed, Barnes and Noble Books, 1999; ISBN: 0-7607-1907-1
Herbs for Pets, Mary L. Wulff-Tilford & Gregory Tilford, BowTie Press, 1999; ISBN: 1-889540-46-3
The Illustrated Herb Encyclopedia, Kathi Keville, Mallard Press, 1991; ISBN: 0-7924-5307-7
Rainforest Remedies, Rosita Arvigo and Michael Balick, Lotus Press, 1993; ISBN: 0-914955-13-6

Resources:
Companion Plants, www.companionplants.com plants
Crimson Sage, http://www.crimson-sage.com Plants
Richters, www.richters.com plants

HERBALPEDIA™ is brought to you by Herbalpedia LLC, PO Box 245, Silver Spring, PA 17575-0245; 717-393-3295; FAX: 717-393-9261; email: herbworld@aol.com URL: http://www.herbalpedia.com Editor: Maureen Rogers. Copyright 2014. All rights reserved. Material herein is derived from journals, textbooks, etc. THGMN cannot be held responsible for the validity of the information contained in any reference noted herein, for the misuse of information or any adverse effects by use of any stated material presented.

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Licorice

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Posted by admin | Posted in Licorice | Posted on 02-02-2016

This is a good article on licorice but be aware that licorice can have a great effect on your blood pressure.  Be sure you tell your health care provider if you are taking supplements that contain it.  http://www.thesleuthjournal.com/the-benefits-and-uses-of-licorice-root/

If you like the profile below you’ll love Herbalpedia.  It can be ordered at http://www.herbnet.com/item/Herbalpedia-2015-100060  And if you use the promo code HerbalpediaPage    Don’t forget the caps or the code won’t work.  Price is $50 instead of $80.

Glycyrrhiza glabra
[gly-ky-RY-zuh GLAY-bruh]

Family: Fabaceae

Names: Spanish licorice; Russian licorice, liquorice; réglisse (French); Lakritze, Süssholz (German); Spanish Juice, Black Sugar, Liquorice; Radix Liquiritiae (root), Succus Liquiritiae (extract); Arpsous, Arq-sous (Arabic); Jashtimodhu (Bengali); Noekiyu (Burmese); Kan tsau, Gancao (Chinese); Lakrids, Lakridsplante (Danish); Zoethout (Dutch); Lagritsa-magusjuur (Estonian); Shirin bajan (Farsi); Lakritskasvi, Lakritsi (Finnish); Süßholz (German); Glikσriza, Jiαmpoli (Greek); Jethimadh (Gujrati); Jethimadh, Mulhathi (Hindi); Édesfa, Igazi édesgyökér (Hungarian); Lakkrís (Icelandic); Liquirizia (Italian); Kanzou (Japanese); Yasthimadhuka (Kannada): Sa em (Laotian); Yashtimadhukam (Malayalan); Jesthamadha (Marathi); Lakrisrot (Norwegian); Lukrecja gladka (Polish); Muleti (Punjabi); Lakrichnik (Russian); Madhuka, Yashtimadhu (Sanskrit); Atimaduram (Singhalese); Orozuz, Ragaliz (Spanish); Susu (Swahili); Lakrits (Swedish); Atimaduram (Tamil); Atimadhuramu (Telugu); regaliz, Yerba Dulce, Palo Cuate, Coahtli

Description: Licorice is one of the most widely used medicinal plants. Pencil-like pieces of the dried runners consisting of yellow fibrous wood are chewed for their sweetness. The plant is perennial, reaching 2 m in height from a root system of taproots, branch roots, and meter long runners. It often covers large areas in southern Italy, Spain, and Russia and other countries east of the Mediterranean as far as Persia. It’s occasionally found growing wild in dry, open habitats but more often found extensively cultivated. The woody stems bear a graceful foliage of dark green leaves, with pairs of narrow, lance-shaped leaflets on a stalk terminating in one odd leaflet. Licorice has a thick, dark reddish-brown root, which is yellowish inside, from which spring horizontal stolons and very long rootlets. It grows to a height of 60 in and has leaves divided into several pairs of almost opposite leaflets with a central, apical leaflet, and they contain numerous oil glands which make them sticky. The bluish-purple flower spikes spring from the leaf axils and bloom from July to September, succeeded by small, smooth pods containing dark, oval seeds.

Cultivation: Requires a deep well cultivated fertile moisture-retentive soil for good root production. Prefers a sandy soil with abundant moisture and does not flourish in clay. Slightly alkaline conditions produce the best plants. The plant thrives in a maritime climate. Plants are hardy to about 17°F. Liquorice is often cultivated for its edible root which is widely used in medicine and as a flavoring. There are some named varieties. The ssp glandulifera grows in Russia and produces adventitious roots up to 10 cm thick. Yields of 10 – 12 ton per hectare were considered good in the early 20th century, this only being attained in the fourth year of growth. Unless seed is required, the plant is usually prevented from flowering so that it puts more energy into producing good quality roots. The bruised root has a characteristic sweet pungent smell. Plants are slow to settle in and do not produce much growth in their first two years after being moved. The young growth is also very susceptible to damage by slugs and so the plant will require some protection for its first few years. A fairly deep-rooting plant, the roots are up to 120cm long. It can be difficult to eradicate once it is established. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.
Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in warm water and then sow spring or autumn in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, and grow them on for their first winter in a greenhouse. Plant out in late spring or early summer when in active growth. Plants are rather slow to grow from seed. Division of the root in spring or autumn. Each division must have at least one growth bud. Autumn divisions can either be replanted immediately or stored in clamps until the spring and then be planted out. It is best to pt up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a cold frame until they are established before planting them out in the spring or summer. Growth will be slow for two years but once established licorice grows luxuriantly. Harvest roots in the third or fourth autumn, wash, trim and dry for future use. Soil should be dug to a depth of two feet or more and manured well the autumn prior to planting. A moist, fairly rich, well-drained sandy loam is best. Soil pH should be slightly alkaline. Licorice is a plant for southern climates, dying in a hard freeze. Warm regions and mild climates insure vigorous growth. It is best to harvest plants that haven’t gone to seed as the sweet sap is exhausted by the flowering process. Pinch flowers back as they develop. An acre has been reported to produce 2 ½ to 5 tons of root. The main root should be split as it is slow to dry.

History: The first mention of licorice was recorded on ancient Assryian tablets and Egyptian papyri. The Greeks learned about the sweet root from the Scythians, so Theophrastus named it Scythian in the 3rd C bc, declaring it god for lung disease. Later it descriptively became glycyrrhiza (glykys, meaning “sweet,” and rhiza, “root). The specific name glabra, ‘smooth’, is a reference to the smooth seed pods. Widely cultivated in 15th-century Italy, it was sold in apothecaries and it remains a common pharmaceutical sweetener and pill binder today. The Latin liquiritia turned into lycorys in Old French. The Dominican Black Friars introduced it into England, where lycorys extract was later sold as lozenges called “pomfrey cakes.”
Licorice has been used medicinally for many centuries; the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, all recognized how beneficial it was for coughs, colds and chills. Licorice was often called scythic by the ancients because the Scythians, redoubtable warriors, were reputed to be able to go for ten days without other food or water by eating licorice. Licorice has been used medicinally since at least 500 B.C. and still features in official pharmacopoeia as a “drug” for stomach ulcers. G. glabra originates in the Mediterranean and the Middle East and has been cultivated in Europe since at least the 16th century. In China, G. uralensis or gan cao is used; it is called the “great detoxifier” and is thought to drive poisons from the system. It is also an important tonic, often called “the grandfather of herbs.”
The roots became popular chewing sticks in Italy, Spain, the West Indies, and other places where the plant grows. Liquorice has an ancient reputation as an aphrodisiac; the Kama Sutra and Ananga Ranga contain numerous recipes for increasing sexual vigor which include licorice.

Constituents: Triterpenes of the oleanane type, mainly glycyrrhizin and its agylcone glycyrrhetinic acid, liquiritic acid, glycyrrhetol, glabrolide, isoblabrolide, licoric acid, and phytosterols; Flavonoids and isoflavonoids: liquiritigenin, liquiritin, rhamnoliquiritin, neoliquiritin, licoflavonol, licoisoflavones A and B, licoisoflavanone, formononetin, glabrol, glabrone, glyzarin, kumatakenin and others; Courmarines: liqcoumarin, umbelliferone, herniarin glycyrin; Chalcones: liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, neosoliquiritin, rhamnoisoliquiritin, licuraside, licochalcones A and B, echinatin and others; Polysaccharides, mainly glucans; Volatile oil, containing fenchone, linalool, furfuyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and others and references; starch, sugars, amino acid. It is for the glycoside glycyrrhizin that the root is cultivated. The amount of glycyrrhizin varies greatly ranging from 7% to 10% depending on growing conditions.

Properties: anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, tonic stimulant for adrenal cortex, lowers blood cholesterol, soothes gastric mucous membranes, possibly anti-allergenic, cooling, expectorant, demulcent, laxative, spasmolytic, hepatoprotectant, hepatorestorative, antiviral

Energetics: sweet, neutral, moist, cool

Meridians/Organs affected: spleen, lung

Medicinal Uses: Since Hippocrates’ day licorice has been prescribed for dropsy because it does, indeed, prevent thirst–probably the only sweet thing that does. The chief medicinal action of licorice is as a demulcent and emollient. Its soothing properties make it excellent in throat and chest complaints and it is a very common ingredient in throat pastilles and cough mixtures. It is also widely used in other medicines to counteract bitter tastes and make them more palatable. Recent research has shown that it has a pain-killing effect on stomach ulcers and prolonged use raises the blood pressure. Medicinally the dried peeled root has been decocted to allay coughs, sore throat, laryngitis, and urinary and intestinal irritations. The root is expectorant, diuretic, demulcent, antitussive, anti-inflammatory, and mildly laxative. It has proven helpful in inflammatory upper respiratory disease, Addison’s disease, and gastric and duodenal ulcers. Side effects may develop in ulcer treatment. Licorice may increase venous and systolic arterial pressure causing some people to experience edema, and hypertension. In some countries, licorice has been used to treat cancers. Licorice stick, the sweet earthy flavored stolons, are chewed. Licorice chew sticks blackened Napoleon’s teeth. In the 1940s Dutch physicians tested licorice’s reputation as an aid for indigestion. They came up with a derivative drug, carbenoxolone, that promised to help peptic ulcer patients by either increasing the life span of epithelial cells in the stomach or inhibiting digestive activity in general. Many cures were achieved in the experiments, but negative side effects–the patients’ faces and limbs swelled uncomfortably–outweighed the cures.
Certain agents in licorice have recently been credited with antibacterial and mild antiviral effects; licorice may be useful in treating dermatitis, colds, and infections. It also has been used in a medicinal dandruff shampoo. Other modern-day research found that the herb can reduce arthritic activity.
An extract of licorice is made by crushing the fresh or stored roots, then boiling or passing steam through them and evaporating the liquid, leaving a thick paste or solid black glossy substance with a sharp fracture. The active ingredient Glycyrrhizin may cause hypertension from potassium loss, sodium retention, and in increase of extracellular fluid and plasma volume. It is fifty times sweeter than sugar. Licorice also reportedly contains steroid hormones, but their relation to licorice’s biological activity is yet to be determined, though extracts have been shown to be estrogenic in laboratory animals. Perhaps the most common medicinal use is in cough syrups and cough drops; licorice soothes the chest and helps bring up phlegm. Licorice has also been used to treat ulcers, to relieve rheumatism and arthritis, and to induce menstruation. In this country it was used in powder form as a laxative.
Licorice root is being used today in France and China in eye drops that relieve inflammation. Sodium salts of glycyrrhinic acid are extracted from the root and added to the eye drop formula. The cortisone like action of the licorice root extract is responsible for its healing effects.

Tincture: Use as an anti-inflammatory for arthritic or allergic conditions, as a digestive stimulant, or allergic conditions, as a digestive stimulant, or for lung disorders. Prescribed for gastric inflammation or to encourage adrenal function after steroid therapy. Helps disguise the flavor or other medicines.
Decoction: Prescribed to reduce stomach acidity in ulceration
Syrup: Take a syrup made from the decoction as a soothing expectorant for asthma and bronchitis.
Fluid Extract: Let juice sticks dissolve slowly in an equal volume of water to produce a strong extract that can be used as the decoction, tincture or syrup

Research: Glycyrrhizin has been found effective in the treatment of AIDS, and in the prevention of progression of HIV+ patients to AIDS in several Japanese clinical trials. Glycyrrhizin is also used routinely in Japan to treat liver dysfunction, a benefit for many AIDS patients.
Glycyrrhizin showed antiviral properties in initial laboratory tests. It inhibited replication of HIV virus, interfered with virus binding to cell walls, inhibited cell-to-cell infection, suppressed clumping of infected cells and induced interferon activity. Interferon raises cell resistance to infection. Although the number of patients in these clinical trials is small, results are consistent in all of them.
Although administration of glycyrrhizin itself gives a more consistent dose, taking the whole root may have advantages. Reports of the glycyrrhizin content of the whole root vary. The Merck Index lists it as 6% to 14%, and the official German monograph lists it as 4% to 5.3%. The German monograph says that a dose of 5g-15g a day delivers 200mg to 800mg of glycyrrhizin to the digestive tract. This will deliver a consistent dose at or above the dose range used by Ikegami with HIV+ patients. Having the antiviral and liver-protecting effects of its constituent glycyrrhizin, the whole root is also an expectorant for coughs and bronchitis, and has anti-inflammatory properties. Its isoflavone and saponin constituents also have antiviral and anti-bacterial properties and could help with secondary infections in AIDS. (Medical Herbalism Vol 2 No 4)

Remedies: To make a decoction that can be taken for coughs, colds, sore throats and stomach ulcers, put 1 1/2-2 oz liquorice root in 1 1/2 pt of water, boil for 10 to 15 minutes, strain and drink as required.

Dosage (general): powder: 0.6-2 g; tincture: 2-5 ml

For menopause: contains phytoestrogens and steroidal estrogenic saponins capable of balancing female hormones. It is suggested that it is best limited to the first half of the menstrual cycle or in menopause 2-3 weeks out of the month to avoid bloating and water retention.

General menopause formulas:
—2 parts Licorice, 2 parts burdock; 2 parts angelica; 1 part wild yam root; 1 part motherwort. Take two capsules three times a day, or 30 drops of a tinctur4e of the same formula. (Tori Hudson, N.D.)
—2 parts Chaste tree berry; 1 part motherwort; 1 part false unicorn root; 1 part angelica; 1 part St. John’s wort; 1-2 parts sage; 1-2 parts black cohosh; ½-1 part licorice; ½ -1 part cramp bark; ½ -1 part alfalfa. Take 304 ml three times a day sway from meals and before bed. Can add dandelion or Oregon grape. (Silena Heron)

Toxicity: As noted above, the cortisonelike component of glycrrhizin increases the retention of salt and water in the body. This causes dangerous side effects, including abnormal heart action and kidney failure, triggered by potassium depletion. Licorice should be avoided by cardiac patients and those who suffer from hypertension, kidney complaints or obesity. Pregnant women, who are especially subject to edema, should also avoid it. In addition, some people are allergic to licorice, even in modest quantities. Cases of toxicity have been reported from less than a gram of glycyrrhizin in chewing tobacco. Licorice has caused paralysis of the limbs, electrolyte imbalance, high blood pressure, and shortness of breath. The toxic manifestations of excess licorice ingestion are well documented. One case documented the ingestion of 30 g to 40 g of licorice per day for 9 months as a diet food. The subject became increasingly lethargic, having flaccid weakness and dulled reflexes. She also suffered from hypokalemia and myoglobinuria. Treatment with potassium supplements reversed her symptoms
Other documented complications include hypokalemic paraparesis, hypertensive encephalopathy and one case of quadriplegia. Products which contain licorice as a flavoring, such a chewing tobacco, have also been implicated in cases of toxicity. Hypersensitivity reactions to glycyrrhiza-containing products have also been noted in the literature. Although licorice candy is safe, large doses can cause sodium retention and potassium loss, leading to water retention, high blood pressure, headaches and shortness of breath. In a controlled study, 3 ½ oz of licorice twists daily for 1-4 weeks resulted in serious symptoms, which disappeared when discontinued.

Cosmetic Uses: Licorice root is emollient and soothing. Modern-day herbalist Jeanne Rose recommends making a steam facial with licorice, comfrey, and either chamomile or lavender. The licorice helps to open the pores and allows the other cleansing and healing herbs to penetrate the skin. As a shampoo ingredient licorice root suppresses the secretion of scalp sebum for a week after shampooing, thereby postponing the oily sheen. It is also used in mouthwash and toothpaste as a sweetening and flavoring agent. Sometimes it is mixed with anise and used in liqueurs and herbal teas. When used in making beer and stout, it adds flavor, color and a foamy head. Licorice has the power to intensify other flavors, and it is used commercially in pastries, ice cream, puddings, soy sauce, and soy-based meat substitutes.

Ritual Uses: Gender: Feminine. Planet: Venus. Element: Water. Powers: Lust, Love, Fidelity. Chewing on a licorice stick will make you passionate. Licorice is added to love and lust sachets, carried to attract love, and used in spells to ensure fidelity. Licorice sticks make useful wands. Licorice root is said to grant the bearer control over a person or situation. Licorice is an ingredient in formulas for controlling others. Dominating: Add Licorice root chips to commercial incenses to make them stronger. Burn Licorice on charcoal while you perform domination candle spells.

Other Uses: Used as foaming agent in fire extinguishers. Licorice products figure as wetting, spreading, and adhesive agents in insecticides and as a medium for culturing food yeast. The pulp is a nitrogen-rich fertilizer and mulch, and it is a component of composition board and insulation. By far the greatest quantity of the licorice, perhaps as much as 90%, ends up in tobacco products.

Culinary Uses: A sweetening agent, it is more than 50 times sweeter than sugar and is added to chocolate to extend the sweetness of sugar. This distinctive bittersweet flavor is a classic the world over. Licorice is a popular confection which can be safely eaten by diabetics; Pontefract of Pomfrey cakes are made from liquorice grown around the town of the same name in Yorkshire. Liquorice is used by brewers to give body and color to porter and stout. It is used in making the Irish ale Guiness and to flavor the Italian liqueur sambuca. Licorice increases the foam in beer. Licorice extracts are used to flavor tobacco, chewing gums, confections, soft drinks, liqueurs, ice cream, and baked goods. Pieces of licorice root can also be infused in hot water for a flavorful and soothing tisane, and licorice powder can be used to enliven fruit juices and dried fruit salads. A stick cut from the root is satisfying to gnaw on, especially for those on diets and for those giving up smoking (it can be fiddled with like a cigarette).

Recipes:
Licorice Cookies
4 Tbsp butter
½ tsp lemon peel
1 tsp lemon juice
½ tsp licorice extract
½ cup sugar
2 cups flour
1 egg
2 tsp baking powder
2 Tbsp milk
Cream butter, lemon peel, lemon juice and extract together with sugar until smooth. Add one cup flour and the egg. Mix baking powder and remaining flour together, then mix in. Ad milk if dough is too dry. Work dough into a smooth ball. Roll out half at a time onto a floured surface to just less than ¼’ thick. Cut out cookies in desired shape and place on lightly greased cookie sheet. Decorate with pieces of licorice candy if desired. Bake at 375F for 12 minutes or until just golden brown around the edges. (The Herb Quarterly No. 19)

Dried Fruit Salad
4 oz dried pears
4 oz dried apricots
8 oz prunes, pitted
2 oz sultanas
¾ pint water
3 licorice roots, 4 inches each, bruised
1 Tbsp sambuca or brandy
1 Tbsp flaked almonds
Rinse the fruit in cold water and place in a bowl starting with the pears. Bring the water to the boil with the licorice root and pour over the fruit. Bury the root in the fruit. When the fruit is cool, add the sambuca or brandy, cover and refrigerate for 48 hours, turning it two or three times. Transfer to a serving bowl, scatter with the almonds and serve with cream. (Cooking with Spices)

Licorice Liqueur
1 fifth vodka
1 cup sugar
4 Tbsp licorice root
½ cup water
Put the licorice root in the vodka bottle and recap it. Let stand in a dark place for a couple of days, then strain the vodka through a coffee filter. Heat the water and mix in sugar until it dissolves. Add this syrup to the vodka and return to bottles. Tightly cap and store for at least two weeks before using.

Licorice and Banana oatmeal
½ ripe banana, mashed well
1-2 pinches of powdered licorice root
1 bowl of well-cooked oatmeal
Blend the banana and licorice into the bowl of oatmeal. Add a little milk if desired. Helps relieve congestion of the sinuses and lungs as well as supporting the immune system and helping to relieve diarrhea. (Growing 101 Herbs that Heal)

References:
Cooking with Spices, Carolyn Heal and Michael Allsop, David and Charles, 1983; ISBN: 0-7153-8369-8
Encyclopedia of Magical Herbs, Scott Cunningham, Llewellwyn Publications, 1982, ISBN: 978-0 87542-122-3
Growing 101 Herbs That Heal, Tammi Hartung, Storey Books, 2000; ISBN: 1-58017-215-6
Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic, Catherine Yronwode, Lucky Mojo Curio Company, 2002, ISBN: 0-9719612-0-4
The Illustrated Herb Encyclopedia, Kathi Keville
The Indian Spice Kitchen, Monisha Bharadwaj, Dutton, 1997; ISBN: 0-525-94343-9

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