Aloe

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Posted by admin | Posted in Aloe | Posted on 10-02-2016

Aloe Vera is not just for burns.  It’s for your heart too.

The Benefits Of Aloe Vera For Your Heart

Aloe barbadensisis not just for burns. 
[AL-oh bar-buh-DEN-s]
(syn Aloe vera)

Family: Asphodelaceae

Names: moka aloe, turkey, aloe, burn plant, medicine plant, Saqal, Zabila, cape, Aloe Zanzibar, Barbados Aloe, lu hui, hsiang dan (Chinese); sink-am-bible (Creole)

Description: a squat succulent with a height of 1-5 feet and a width of 1-3 feet. The flowers are orange or red, grouped on top of tall, erect stems, hanging down like tiers of small 1-inch cigars. The leaves are fleshy, very succulent blades rising 1-2 feet from a rosette center. They are pale green and mottled with paler spots, prickly along the edges. It blooms midsummer when planted in the ground. Aloe takes 2-3 years to flower.

Cultivation: A perennial to Zone 3. Germination can sometimes take months. Space 3 feet apart with a soil temperature of 60F. Prefers sandy loam that is very well drained and a pH of 5-7.5. Infrequent, deep watering is needed so the roots don’t get soggy. Potted plants need filtered sun or complete shade. They turn brown when fully exposed to the sun. Easiest to propagate by rooting young, outer suckers.

History: An important herb for over 3,000 years, the Egyptian Papyrus ebers and temple walls describe the use of aloe vera to treat burns, skin ulcers and parasites. Aloe is thought to be the secret ingredient Cleopatra added to her beauty cream. The name goes back to the Arabic alloeh or the Hebrew halal, meaning “bitter, shiny substance” describing the medicinal inner leaf of the plant. The Arabs first record using this bitter substance as a laxative in the 6th century B.C. In the 1st century A.D., the herbalist Dioscorides recommended aloe vera for digestive tract, kidney, mouth and skin diseases. The east African island of Socotra was the only place aloe was cultivated in the 4th century B.C., so Aristotle reportedly asked Alexander the Great to conquer the island to assure a constant supply. Socotra remained the only source of aloe vera until 1673 when English druggists began importing it from Barbados, giving it the species name barbadensis.  Cosmetically, aloe vera gel was valued by Cleopatra, who massaged it into her skin. Aloe was also reputed to be the basis of the Empress Josephine’s complexion milk.  The active herb is derived from the condensed juice of the fresh leaves and comes in irregularly shaped chunks about 2 centimeters thick, with a waxy texture and varying in color from orange-brown to black. It is highly aromatic and has a sharply bitter taste, hence the Chinese name meaning “elephant’s gall” (hsiang dan).

Constituents: Glycoside (anthraquinone, also called aloe-emodin and aloin), polysaccharides, acemannan (a powerful immunostimulant), saponins, essential oil, steroids, enzymes, antibiotic, minerals, cinnamic and salicylic acids. The fresh leaf contains about 96% water

Properties: purgative, promotes bile flow, heals wounds, tonic, demulcent, antifungal, stops bleeding, sedative, expels worms.

Energetics: leaves: bitter, hot, moist; gel: salty, bitter, cool, moist

Meridians/Organs affected: liver, stomach, large intestine

Medicinal Uses: Commercial aloe juice is made from the inner leaf, which is blended and strained, with a preservative added. To make aloe “gel”, the juice is thickened with seaweed to mimic the leaf’s original thick consistency. The crystalline part called aloin, a brownish gel found alongside the leaf blade, is powdered and used in some commercial laxatives. It is so strong that it must be combined with other herbs to prevent intestinal griping. The commercial juice and gel remove this part of the leaf, so both the juice and the gel are soothing to digestive tract irritations, such as peptic ulcers and colitis. In one study, the stomach lesions of twelve peptic ulcer patients were all completely healed. A popular ingredient in commercial drug store products, aloe is commonly used to soothe burns, including sunburn and radiation burns. Aloe is also applied to wounds, eczema, ringworm and poison oak and poison ivy rashes. There is evidence that it effectively regenerated injured nerves. One study reports aloe to be successful in healing leg ulcerations and severe acne and even finds that it promotes hair growth. When 56 frostbit patients were treated with a product containing 70% aloe, only 7% developed infections, compared to 98 frostbitten patients not treated with aloe, 33 of whom eventually needed amputation. It has also proved helpful in treating periodontosis. One study injected aloe extracts into the diseased areas of 128 patients with varying degrees of gum disease. Within a week, the development of symptoms stopped, pain decreased and marked improvement followed in all patients.
Aloe is widely used in folk medicine, both as a liniment and as a drink, to reduce the swelling and pain of arthritis and rheumatism. Diabetics in the Arabian peninsula eat aloe to control their blood sugar levels. A clinical study did find that when volunteers who were not insulin dependent took half a teaspoon daily for 4-14 weeks, their fasting blood sugar levels were reduced by half, with no change in body weight.
Another preparation from aloe, carrisyn, is a polysaccharide. It has been claimed that carrisyn directly kills various types of viruses, including herpes and measles, and possibly HIV. However, research is still in the preliminary stages.
To remove deeply embedded thorns, stones or fish scales, slice a piece of aloe vera leaf in half; apply over area and secure with a band or cloth. Leave this dressing on and change once daily—this will draw out the object in 3-5 days.

Remedies:
Gel: Apply the split leaf directly to burns, wounds, dry skin, fungal infections, and insect bites. Take up to 2 tsp in a glass of water or fruit juice, three times a day, as a tonic
Ointment: Split several leaves to collect a large quantity of gel, and boil it down to a thick paste. Store in clean jars in a cool place and use like the fresh leaves
Tonic Wine: Fermented aloe gel with honey and spices is known as kumaryasava in India and is used as a tonic for anemia, poor digestive function and liver disorders
Inhalation: Use the gel in a steam inhalant for bronchial congestion
Tincture of leaves: Use 1-3 ml per dose as an appetite stimulant or for constipation. The taste is unpleasant
Powder: Use 100-500 mg per dose or in capsules as a purgative for stubborn constipation and to stimulate bile flow.
Bunion Balsam: ¼ tsp aloe powder, 5/12 tsp myrrh powder, 4 oz vitamin E oil. Mix well in a bottle, let stand for a few days occasionally shaking the mixture, then strain off the clear liquid, discarding the sediment. Apply to bunions with a brush morning and night.

TCM: Using A. Barbadensis
Nature: bitter, cold
Affinity: liver, stomach, large intestine
Indications-Internal: stomachic, refrigerant; antiseptic; emmenagogue; sedative to liver, Chronic constipation; dizziness, headache and delirium due to live inflammations; intestinal parasites, gastritis, ulcers, indigestion, abdominal pains and heartburn; high or low blood pressure. Does not lose effect with prolonged use, so is good for chronic cases of constipation.
Indications-External: premature balding; scrapes, burns, sunburns, skin blemishes, and frostbite; athlete’s foot; insect bites; acne; hemorrhoids.
Contraindications: children with empty-cold constitutions (very pale, frail, prone to respiratory disorders) should not use aloe; adults should not exceed the daily dosages suggested above

Veterinary Use: Topical application of aloe gel will usually bring immediate cooling relief to fleabites, poison ivy and sunburns. It is also excellent for reducing the itch and tightening of postsurgical incisions. Applied after sutures are removed, the gel reduces much of the irritation that so often leads to persistent chewing or scratching and may result in inflammation and infection. Apply enough juice to lightly cover the affected area and allow it to dry. Apply once or twice per day until the healing process is progressing well. Scientists have recently found that acemannan acts as a strong immunostimulant in animals, particularly in cats. It has been found to be especially effective in the treatment of fibrosarcoma and feline leukemia virus. In a recent study, 44 cats with confirmed FeLV were intravenously injected with 2 milligrams per kilogram of acemannan weekly for six weeks and reexamined six weeks after the treatment was terminated. At the end of the 12 week study, 71 percent of the cats were alive and in good health. Acemannan has also been shown to be effective against cancerous tumors in rodents and dogs.

Flower Essence: For overuse or misuse of fiery, creative forces; “burned-out” feeling. Aloe Vera helps the soul and body aspect to come into greater harmony, by bringing the nourishment which comes from the water polarity of life—the flowing qualities of renewal and rejuvenation. When the soul learns to balance the fiery forces of the will with the fountain of feeling from the heart, a tremendous outpouring of positive creativity and spirituality can be realized.

Cosmetic Uses: Aloe is a popular base for many cosmetics. It is a soothing emollient for the skin that works wonders for complexion care, soothes sunburn and also prevents scarring. The aloin it contains is a sunscreen that blocks 20-30% of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. Aloe’s natural pH is about 4.3, ideally suited for skin, which is between pH 4 and 6.

Sunny Day Cream
1/8 cup lanolin
¼ cup almond oil
¼ cup coconut oil
¼ cup aloe vera gel
½ cup chamomile tea
¼ cup dried calendula petals
10-15 drops lavender essential oil
In the top of a double boiler or in a small saucepan over very low heat, melt the lanolin and almond oil together. Beat in the coconut oil with a wire whisk, then add the aloe vera gel and chamomile infusion, beating until the mixture is cool and creamy. Stir in the calendula petals and the lavender oil. Store cream in clean airtight jars in a cool, dark pantry or refrigerator for up to 6 months. (Herb Companion, May 2004)

Fungus Fighting Lotion
1 cup aloe vera gel
½ oz bloodroot tincture
1 tsp borax
½ tsp clove oil
½ tsp tea tree oil
Pour all ingredients into a blender. Blend for a few minutes, then pour into amber dropper bottles. Stored in a cool dark place, the lotion will last for up to one year. Shake the lotion well before using and apply two to three times daily. (Herbs for Health June 2004)

Toxicity: Excessive use of aloe (containing aloin) or any strong laxative, encourages hemorrhoids. This part of the plant should not be taken internally during pregnancy, since it can stimulate contractions, or while nursing, since it passes through breast milk

Ritual Uses: Gender: Feminine. Planet: Moon. Element: Water. Powers: Protection, Luck. The aloe is protective. It guards against evil influences and prevents household accidents. In Mexico, large wreaths made of whole garlic bulbs strung on wire are festooned with poictures of saints, packets of magical herbs, lodestones, rock salt, pine nuts as well as clumps of freshly cut aloe. These are hung up in the home for protection, luck and money. Aloe is sacred among many of the followers of Mohammed, particularly those living in Egypt. Pilgrims who visit Mohammed’s shrine hang the aloe above the doorway. In that culture it is also believed that the aloe provides protection to one’s home and the practice has spread to other religions in Egypt as well. The aloe is sometimes planted upon a burial site, believed to promote a peaceful existence until the deceased is reborn. Roman women believed that the plant was sacred to the goddess Venus, who bestowed love and beauty to hose who gave her honor. Among some tribes living along the Congo River in Africa, the juice of the aloe is ritually gathered and is integrated into their hunting rituals. The practical aspect is that, when the hunter’s body is coated with the juice of the aloe, he can move among his prey without his scent giving him away. Based upon lore and history, it would hold that growing an aloe would bring increased protection for your home. Modern lore has suggested that the aloe increases one’s likelihood of finding success in the world. It also purports that aloe may help those afflicted with feelings of loneliness.

References:
A Compendium of Herbal Magick, Paul Beyerl, Phoenix Publishing, 1998; ISBN: 0-919345-45-x
The Complete Medicinal Herbal , Penelope Ody, Dorling Kindersley, 1993; ISBN: 1-56458-187-X
Encyclopedia of Magical Herbs, Scott Cunningham, Llewellwyn Publications, 1982, ISBN: 978-0 87542-122-3
Flower Essence Repertory, Patricia Kaminski and Richard Katz, Flower Essence Society, 1996; ISBN: 0-9631306-1-7
A Handbook of Chinese Healing Herbs, Daniel Reed, Barnes and Noble Books, 1999; ISBN: 0-7607-1907-1
Herbs for Pets, Mary L. Wulff-Tilford & Gregory Tilford, BowTie Press, 1999; ISBN: 1-889540-46-3
The Illustrated Herb Encyclopedia, Kathi Keville, Mallard Press, 1991; ISBN: 0-7924-5307-7
Rainforest Remedies, Rosita Arvigo and Michael Balick, Lotus Press, 1993; ISBN: 0-914955-13-6

Resources:
Companion Plants, www.companionplants.com plants
Crimson Sage, http://www.crimson-sage.com Plants
Richters, www.richters.com plants

HERBALPEDIA™ is brought to you by Herbalpedia LLC, PO Box 245, Silver Spring, PA 17575-0245; 717-393-3295; FAX: 717-393-9261; email: herbworld@aol.com URL: http://www.herbalpedia.com Editor: Maureen Rogers. Copyright 2014. All rights reserved. Material herein is derived from journals, textbooks, etc. THGMN cannot be held responsible for the validity of the information contained in any reference noted herein, for the misuse of information or any adverse effects by use of any stated material presented.

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Licorice

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Posted by admin | Posted in Licorice | Posted on 02-02-2016

This is a good article on licorice but be aware that licorice can have a great effect on your blood pressure.  Be sure you tell your health care provider if you are taking supplements that contain it.  http://www.thesleuthjournal.com/the-benefits-and-uses-of-licorice-root/

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Glycyrrhiza glabra
[gly-ky-RY-zuh GLAY-bruh]

Family: Fabaceae

Names: Spanish licorice; Russian licorice, liquorice; réglisse (French); Lakritze, Süssholz (German); Spanish Juice, Black Sugar, Liquorice; Radix Liquiritiae (root), Succus Liquiritiae (extract); Arpsous, Arq-sous (Arabic); Jashtimodhu (Bengali); Noekiyu (Burmese); Kan tsau, Gancao (Chinese); Lakrids, Lakridsplante (Danish); Zoethout (Dutch); Lagritsa-magusjuur (Estonian); Shirin bajan (Farsi); Lakritskasvi, Lakritsi (Finnish); Süßholz (German); Glikσriza, Jiαmpoli (Greek); Jethimadh (Gujrati); Jethimadh, Mulhathi (Hindi); Édesfa, Igazi édesgyökér (Hungarian); Lakkrís (Icelandic); Liquirizia (Italian); Kanzou (Japanese); Yasthimadhuka (Kannada): Sa em (Laotian); Yashtimadhukam (Malayalan); Jesthamadha (Marathi); Lakrisrot (Norwegian); Lukrecja gladka (Polish); Muleti (Punjabi); Lakrichnik (Russian); Madhuka, Yashtimadhu (Sanskrit); Atimaduram (Singhalese); Orozuz, Ragaliz (Spanish); Susu (Swahili); Lakrits (Swedish); Atimaduram (Tamil); Atimadhuramu (Telugu); regaliz, Yerba Dulce, Palo Cuate, Coahtli

Description: Licorice is one of the most widely used medicinal plants. Pencil-like pieces of the dried runners consisting of yellow fibrous wood are chewed for their sweetness. The plant is perennial, reaching 2 m in height from a root system of taproots, branch roots, and meter long runners. It often covers large areas in southern Italy, Spain, and Russia and other countries east of the Mediterranean as far as Persia. It’s occasionally found growing wild in dry, open habitats but more often found extensively cultivated. The woody stems bear a graceful foliage of dark green leaves, with pairs of narrow, lance-shaped leaflets on a stalk terminating in one odd leaflet. Licorice has a thick, dark reddish-brown root, which is yellowish inside, from which spring horizontal stolons and very long rootlets. It grows to a height of 60 in and has leaves divided into several pairs of almost opposite leaflets with a central, apical leaflet, and they contain numerous oil glands which make them sticky. The bluish-purple flower spikes spring from the leaf axils and bloom from July to September, succeeded by small, smooth pods containing dark, oval seeds.

Cultivation: Requires a deep well cultivated fertile moisture-retentive soil for good root production. Prefers a sandy soil with abundant moisture and does not flourish in clay. Slightly alkaline conditions produce the best plants. The plant thrives in a maritime climate. Plants are hardy to about 17°F. Liquorice is often cultivated for its edible root which is widely used in medicine and as a flavoring. There are some named varieties. The ssp glandulifera grows in Russia and produces adventitious roots up to 10 cm thick. Yields of 10 – 12 ton per hectare were considered good in the early 20th century, this only being attained in the fourth year of growth. Unless seed is required, the plant is usually prevented from flowering so that it puts more energy into producing good quality roots. The bruised root has a characteristic sweet pungent smell. Plants are slow to settle in and do not produce much growth in their first two years after being moved. The young growth is also very susceptible to damage by slugs and so the plant will require some protection for its first few years. A fairly deep-rooting plant, the roots are up to 120cm long. It can be difficult to eradicate once it is established. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.
Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in warm water and then sow spring or autumn in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, and grow them on for their first winter in a greenhouse. Plant out in late spring or early summer when in active growth. Plants are rather slow to grow from seed. Division of the root in spring or autumn. Each division must have at least one growth bud. Autumn divisions can either be replanted immediately or stored in clamps until the spring and then be planted out. It is best to pt up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a cold frame until they are established before planting them out in the spring or summer. Growth will be slow for two years but once established licorice grows luxuriantly. Harvest roots in the third or fourth autumn, wash, trim and dry for future use. Soil should be dug to a depth of two feet or more and manured well the autumn prior to planting. A moist, fairly rich, well-drained sandy loam is best. Soil pH should be slightly alkaline. Licorice is a plant for southern climates, dying in a hard freeze. Warm regions and mild climates insure vigorous growth. It is best to harvest plants that haven’t gone to seed as the sweet sap is exhausted by the flowering process. Pinch flowers back as they develop. An acre has been reported to produce 2 ½ to 5 tons of root. The main root should be split as it is slow to dry.

History: The first mention of licorice was recorded on ancient Assryian tablets and Egyptian papyri. The Greeks learned about the sweet root from the Scythians, so Theophrastus named it Scythian in the 3rd C bc, declaring it god for lung disease. Later it descriptively became glycyrrhiza (glykys, meaning “sweet,” and rhiza, “root). The specific name glabra, ‘smooth’, is a reference to the smooth seed pods. Widely cultivated in 15th-century Italy, it was sold in apothecaries and it remains a common pharmaceutical sweetener and pill binder today. The Latin liquiritia turned into lycorys in Old French. The Dominican Black Friars introduced it into England, where lycorys extract was later sold as lozenges called “pomfrey cakes.”
Licorice has been used medicinally for many centuries; the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, all recognized how beneficial it was for coughs, colds and chills. Licorice was often called scythic by the ancients because the Scythians, redoubtable warriors, were reputed to be able to go for ten days without other food or water by eating licorice. Licorice has been used medicinally since at least 500 B.C. and still features in official pharmacopoeia as a “drug” for stomach ulcers. G. glabra originates in the Mediterranean and the Middle East and has been cultivated in Europe since at least the 16th century. In China, G. uralensis or gan cao is used; it is called the “great detoxifier” and is thought to drive poisons from the system. It is also an important tonic, often called “the grandfather of herbs.”
The roots became popular chewing sticks in Italy, Spain, the West Indies, and other places where the plant grows. Liquorice has an ancient reputation as an aphrodisiac; the Kama Sutra and Ananga Ranga contain numerous recipes for increasing sexual vigor which include licorice.

Constituents: Triterpenes of the oleanane type, mainly glycyrrhizin and its agylcone glycyrrhetinic acid, liquiritic acid, glycyrrhetol, glabrolide, isoblabrolide, licoric acid, and phytosterols; Flavonoids and isoflavonoids: liquiritigenin, liquiritin, rhamnoliquiritin, neoliquiritin, licoflavonol, licoisoflavones A and B, licoisoflavanone, formononetin, glabrol, glabrone, glyzarin, kumatakenin and others; Courmarines: liqcoumarin, umbelliferone, herniarin glycyrin; Chalcones: liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, neosoliquiritin, rhamnoisoliquiritin, licuraside, licochalcones A and B, echinatin and others; Polysaccharides, mainly glucans; Volatile oil, containing fenchone, linalool, furfuyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and others and references; starch, sugars, amino acid. It is for the glycoside glycyrrhizin that the root is cultivated. The amount of glycyrrhizin varies greatly ranging from 7% to 10% depending on growing conditions.

Properties: anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, tonic stimulant for adrenal cortex, lowers blood cholesterol, soothes gastric mucous membranes, possibly anti-allergenic, cooling, expectorant, demulcent, laxative, spasmolytic, hepatoprotectant, hepatorestorative, antiviral

Energetics: sweet, neutral, moist, cool

Meridians/Organs affected: spleen, lung

Medicinal Uses: Since Hippocrates’ day licorice has been prescribed for dropsy because it does, indeed, prevent thirst–probably the only sweet thing that does. The chief medicinal action of licorice is as a demulcent and emollient. Its soothing properties make it excellent in throat and chest complaints and it is a very common ingredient in throat pastilles and cough mixtures. It is also widely used in other medicines to counteract bitter tastes and make them more palatable. Recent research has shown that it has a pain-killing effect on stomach ulcers and prolonged use raises the blood pressure. Medicinally the dried peeled root has been decocted to allay coughs, sore throat, laryngitis, and urinary and intestinal irritations. The root is expectorant, diuretic, demulcent, antitussive, anti-inflammatory, and mildly laxative. It has proven helpful in inflammatory upper respiratory disease, Addison’s disease, and gastric and duodenal ulcers. Side effects may develop in ulcer treatment. Licorice may increase venous and systolic arterial pressure causing some people to experience edema, and hypertension. In some countries, licorice has been used to treat cancers. Licorice stick, the sweet earthy flavored stolons, are chewed. Licorice chew sticks blackened Napoleon’s teeth. In the 1940s Dutch physicians tested licorice’s reputation as an aid for indigestion. They came up with a derivative drug, carbenoxolone, that promised to help peptic ulcer patients by either increasing the life span of epithelial cells in the stomach or inhibiting digestive activity in general. Many cures were achieved in the experiments, but negative side effects–the patients’ faces and limbs swelled uncomfortably–outweighed the cures.
Certain agents in licorice have recently been credited with antibacterial and mild antiviral effects; licorice may be useful in treating dermatitis, colds, and infections. It also has been used in a medicinal dandruff shampoo. Other modern-day research found that the herb can reduce arthritic activity.
An extract of licorice is made by crushing the fresh or stored roots, then boiling or passing steam through them and evaporating the liquid, leaving a thick paste or solid black glossy substance with a sharp fracture. The active ingredient Glycyrrhizin may cause hypertension from potassium loss, sodium retention, and in increase of extracellular fluid and plasma volume. It is fifty times sweeter than sugar. Licorice also reportedly contains steroid hormones, but their relation to licorice’s biological activity is yet to be determined, though extracts have been shown to be estrogenic in laboratory animals. Perhaps the most common medicinal use is in cough syrups and cough drops; licorice soothes the chest and helps bring up phlegm. Licorice has also been used to treat ulcers, to relieve rheumatism and arthritis, and to induce menstruation. In this country it was used in powder form as a laxative.
Licorice root is being used today in France and China in eye drops that relieve inflammation. Sodium salts of glycyrrhinic acid are extracted from the root and added to the eye drop formula. The cortisone like action of the licorice root extract is responsible for its healing effects.

Tincture: Use as an anti-inflammatory for arthritic or allergic conditions, as a digestive stimulant, or allergic conditions, as a digestive stimulant, or for lung disorders. Prescribed for gastric inflammation or to encourage adrenal function after steroid therapy. Helps disguise the flavor or other medicines.
Decoction: Prescribed to reduce stomach acidity in ulceration
Syrup: Take a syrup made from the decoction as a soothing expectorant for asthma and bronchitis.
Fluid Extract: Let juice sticks dissolve slowly in an equal volume of water to produce a strong extract that can be used as the decoction, tincture or syrup

Research: Glycyrrhizin has been found effective in the treatment of AIDS, and in the prevention of progression of HIV+ patients to AIDS in several Japanese clinical trials. Glycyrrhizin is also used routinely in Japan to treat liver dysfunction, a benefit for many AIDS patients.
Glycyrrhizin showed antiviral properties in initial laboratory tests. It inhibited replication of HIV virus, interfered with virus binding to cell walls, inhibited cell-to-cell infection, suppressed clumping of infected cells and induced interferon activity. Interferon raises cell resistance to infection. Although the number of patients in these clinical trials is small, results are consistent in all of them.
Although administration of glycyrrhizin itself gives a more consistent dose, taking the whole root may have advantages. Reports of the glycyrrhizin content of the whole root vary. The Merck Index lists it as 6% to 14%, and the official German monograph lists it as 4% to 5.3%. The German monograph says that a dose of 5g-15g a day delivers 200mg to 800mg of glycyrrhizin to the digestive tract. This will deliver a consistent dose at or above the dose range used by Ikegami with HIV+ patients. Having the antiviral and liver-protecting effects of its constituent glycyrrhizin, the whole root is also an expectorant for coughs and bronchitis, and has anti-inflammatory properties. Its isoflavone and saponin constituents also have antiviral and anti-bacterial properties and could help with secondary infections in AIDS. (Medical Herbalism Vol 2 No 4)

Remedies: To make a decoction that can be taken for coughs, colds, sore throats and stomach ulcers, put 1 1/2-2 oz liquorice root in 1 1/2 pt of water, boil for 10 to 15 minutes, strain and drink as required.

Dosage (general): powder: 0.6-2 g; tincture: 2-5 ml

For menopause: contains phytoestrogens and steroidal estrogenic saponins capable of balancing female hormones. It is suggested that it is best limited to the first half of the menstrual cycle or in menopause 2-3 weeks out of the month to avoid bloating and water retention.

General menopause formulas:
—2 parts Licorice, 2 parts burdock; 2 parts angelica; 1 part wild yam root; 1 part motherwort. Take two capsules three times a day, or 30 drops of a tinctur4e of the same formula. (Tori Hudson, N.D.)
—2 parts Chaste tree berry; 1 part motherwort; 1 part false unicorn root; 1 part angelica; 1 part St. John’s wort; 1-2 parts sage; 1-2 parts black cohosh; ½-1 part licorice; ½ -1 part cramp bark; ½ -1 part alfalfa. Take 304 ml three times a day sway from meals and before bed. Can add dandelion or Oregon grape. (Silena Heron)

Toxicity: As noted above, the cortisonelike component of glycrrhizin increases the retention of salt and water in the body. This causes dangerous side effects, including abnormal heart action and kidney failure, triggered by potassium depletion. Licorice should be avoided by cardiac patients and those who suffer from hypertension, kidney complaints or obesity. Pregnant women, who are especially subject to edema, should also avoid it. In addition, some people are allergic to licorice, even in modest quantities. Cases of toxicity have been reported from less than a gram of glycyrrhizin in chewing tobacco. Licorice has caused paralysis of the limbs, electrolyte imbalance, high blood pressure, and shortness of breath. The toxic manifestations of excess licorice ingestion are well documented. One case documented the ingestion of 30 g to 40 g of licorice per day for 9 months as a diet food. The subject became increasingly lethargic, having flaccid weakness and dulled reflexes. She also suffered from hypokalemia and myoglobinuria. Treatment with potassium supplements reversed her symptoms
Other documented complications include hypokalemic paraparesis, hypertensive encephalopathy and one case of quadriplegia. Products which contain licorice as a flavoring, such a chewing tobacco, have also been implicated in cases of toxicity. Hypersensitivity reactions to glycyrrhiza-containing products have also been noted in the literature. Although licorice candy is safe, large doses can cause sodium retention and potassium loss, leading to water retention, high blood pressure, headaches and shortness of breath. In a controlled study, 3 ½ oz of licorice twists daily for 1-4 weeks resulted in serious symptoms, which disappeared when discontinued.

Cosmetic Uses: Licorice root is emollient and soothing. Modern-day herbalist Jeanne Rose recommends making a steam facial with licorice, comfrey, and either chamomile or lavender. The licorice helps to open the pores and allows the other cleansing and healing herbs to penetrate the skin. As a shampoo ingredient licorice root suppresses the secretion of scalp sebum for a week after shampooing, thereby postponing the oily sheen. It is also used in mouthwash and toothpaste as a sweetening and flavoring agent. Sometimes it is mixed with anise and used in liqueurs and herbal teas. When used in making beer and stout, it adds flavor, color and a foamy head. Licorice has the power to intensify other flavors, and it is used commercially in pastries, ice cream, puddings, soy sauce, and soy-based meat substitutes.

Ritual Uses: Gender: Feminine. Planet: Venus. Element: Water. Powers: Lust, Love, Fidelity. Chewing on a licorice stick will make you passionate. Licorice is added to love and lust sachets, carried to attract love, and used in spells to ensure fidelity. Licorice sticks make useful wands. Licorice root is said to grant the bearer control over a person or situation. Licorice is an ingredient in formulas for controlling others. Dominating: Add Licorice root chips to commercial incenses to make them stronger. Burn Licorice on charcoal while you perform domination candle spells.

Other Uses: Used as foaming agent in fire extinguishers. Licorice products figure as wetting, spreading, and adhesive agents in insecticides and as a medium for culturing food yeast. The pulp is a nitrogen-rich fertilizer and mulch, and it is a component of composition board and insulation. By far the greatest quantity of the licorice, perhaps as much as 90%, ends up in tobacco products.

Culinary Uses: A sweetening agent, it is more than 50 times sweeter than sugar and is added to chocolate to extend the sweetness of sugar. This distinctive bittersweet flavor is a classic the world over. Licorice is a popular confection which can be safely eaten by diabetics; Pontefract of Pomfrey cakes are made from liquorice grown around the town of the same name in Yorkshire. Liquorice is used by brewers to give body and color to porter and stout. It is used in making the Irish ale Guiness and to flavor the Italian liqueur sambuca. Licorice increases the foam in beer. Licorice extracts are used to flavor tobacco, chewing gums, confections, soft drinks, liqueurs, ice cream, and baked goods. Pieces of licorice root can also be infused in hot water for a flavorful and soothing tisane, and licorice powder can be used to enliven fruit juices and dried fruit salads. A stick cut from the root is satisfying to gnaw on, especially for those on diets and for those giving up smoking (it can be fiddled with like a cigarette).

Recipes:
Licorice Cookies
4 Tbsp butter
½ tsp lemon peel
1 tsp lemon juice
½ tsp licorice extract
½ cup sugar
2 cups flour
1 egg
2 tsp baking powder
2 Tbsp milk
Cream butter, lemon peel, lemon juice and extract together with sugar until smooth. Add one cup flour and the egg. Mix baking powder and remaining flour together, then mix in. Ad milk if dough is too dry. Work dough into a smooth ball. Roll out half at a time onto a floured surface to just less than ¼’ thick. Cut out cookies in desired shape and place on lightly greased cookie sheet. Decorate with pieces of licorice candy if desired. Bake at 375F for 12 minutes or until just golden brown around the edges. (The Herb Quarterly No. 19)

Dried Fruit Salad
4 oz dried pears
4 oz dried apricots
8 oz prunes, pitted
2 oz sultanas
¾ pint water
3 licorice roots, 4 inches each, bruised
1 Tbsp sambuca or brandy
1 Tbsp flaked almonds
Rinse the fruit in cold water and place in a bowl starting with the pears. Bring the water to the boil with the licorice root and pour over the fruit. Bury the root in the fruit. When the fruit is cool, add the sambuca or brandy, cover and refrigerate for 48 hours, turning it two or three times. Transfer to a serving bowl, scatter with the almonds and serve with cream. (Cooking with Spices)

Licorice Liqueur
1 fifth vodka
1 cup sugar
4 Tbsp licorice root
½ cup water
Put the licorice root in the vodka bottle and recap it. Let stand in a dark place for a couple of days, then strain the vodka through a coffee filter. Heat the water and mix in sugar until it dissolves. Add this syrup to the vodka and return to bottles. Tightly cap and store for at least two weeks before using.

Licorice and Banana oatmeal
½ ripe banana, mashed well
1-2 pinches of powdered licorice root
1 bowl of well-cooked oatmeal
Blend the banana and licorice into the bowl of oatmeal. Add a little milk if desired. Helps relieve congestion of the sinuses and lungs as well as supporting the immune system and helping to relieve diarrhea. (Growing 101 Herbs that Heal)

References:
Cooking with Spices, Carolyn Heal and Michael Allsop, David and Charles, 1983; ISBN: 0-7153-8369-8
Encyclopedia of Magical Herbs, Scott Cunningham, Llewellwyn Publications, 1982, ISBN: 978-0 87542-122-3
Growing 101 Herbs That Heal, Tammi Hartung, Storey Books, 2000; ISBN: 1-58017-215-6
Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic, Catherine Yronwode, Lucky Mojo Curio Company, 2002, ISBN: 0-9719612-0-4
The Illustrated Herb Encyclopedia, Kathi Keville
The Indian Spice Kitchen, Monisha Bharadwaj, Dutton, 1997; ISBN: 0-525-94343-9

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